Rise and Noise:
From Misty Poetry (Menglongshi) to the Third-Generation (Disandai) Poets

SUN Jilin 孙基林  

English translation of Jueqi yu xuanxiao: cong menglongshi dao disandai 崛起与喧嚣: 从朦胧诗到第三代 (2004),
translated by CUI Ying 崔英 and HUANG Xiuguo 黄秀国


Deutsche Ostasienstudien 33


Paperback (23,0 x 15,0 cm), xii + 347 pages
May 2021. € 39,80.
ISBN-13: 978-3-940527-03-5 (978-3940527035, 9783940527035) ISBN-10: 3-940527-03-3 (3940527033)
Vertrieb: CHINA Buchservice / Bestellen


As a witness of and participant in the tides of Misty Poetry and Third-Generation poetry, the author takes a comparative perspective on the development of poetics in contemporary China. This book presents a comprehensive, systematic, and in-depth investigation of the two forms of avant-garde poetry in contemporary China, namely Misty Poetry (Menglong shi 朦胧诗) and Third-Generation Poetry (Di Sandai shi 第三代诗). It describes the origin and evolution of Misty Poetry and the Third-Generation poetry in relation to the bigger picture of the new poetry tide, literary creation, poetics, and ideological features in contemporary China. This book is composed of three parts. Part I, “Context and Process”, outlines the major events and poets in the development of new poetry with reference to the special political, social, and historical context of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s in China. Part II, “Misty Poetry”, elaborates on such issues as the rhetorical and ideological features, writing patterns and modernity regarding Misty Poetry. Part III, “Third-Generation Poetics”, analyzes such aspects of the Third-Generation poems as their overall characteristics, subjective awareness, and the post-modern turn.

Table of Contents


Part I: Context and Process

 Chapter One: Important Facts about the Historical Background and Its Impact
  The Age, Salons and Poetry
  The “X Society of Poets” and the “Solar Brigade”
  Xu Haoyuan’s Salon
  Zhao Yifan’s Salon and Others
  A Prominent Individual: Shi Zhi
  The Poets’ Communities at Baiyangdian Lake

 Chapter Two: The Rise and Naming of the New Poetry Wave

 Chapter Three: Another Kind of Noise and Fission

Part II: Misty Poetry

 Chapter Four: Subjectivity and Inherence
  “Humans Come First”: Universal Subject and Individuals
  “Marching to the Heart”: The Subject’s Inherence or the Heart

 Chapter Five: Imagery Rhetoric: Metaphorical or Symbolic
  Metaphorical Images
  Symbolic Images

 Chapter Six: Three Dimensions and Patterns
  The Image of an Isolated Island: Reality and Rational Awareness
  Romantic Mode: Ideal or Fairytale
  Shu Ting: “Ideal Makes Pain Radiant”
  Gu Cheng: “I Have a Paradise”
  National Prototype: Historical or Mythical

 Chapter Seven: Misty Poetry and Modernity

Part III: The Third Generation Poetics

 Chapter Eight: Evolution and Rise
  Later Misty Poetry
  College Poetry

 Chapter Nine: Cultural Deconstruction
  Non-sublimity: An Aesthetic State of Cultural Deconstruction
  Non-imagery: The Artistic Deconstruction of Culture

 Chapter Ten: On “Others”
  Return to Reality: The Awakening of Poetry and Life
  Perception and Process: The Existence of Poetry and Life
  Simplicity: The Existence of Words and Image of language

 Chapter Eleven: On “No-No”
  Restoration of Pre-culture and the Poetic Methods
  The Poetic Experiment of “No-Noism”

 Chapter Twelve: Linguistic Poetics and Philosophy

 Chapter Thirteen: Ontic Awareness and Ideology
  Ontic Awareness

 Chapter Fourteen: The Post-Modernity of the Third Generation Poetry
  Anti-Culture: The Origin of the Third Generation Poetry
  The Post-Modernity of Revealing or Demonstrating Existence
  The Post-modernity of Deconstructing Culture or Signs


Bibliography (Articles, Authors, Books, Periodicals, Poems)

Glossary (Names of Persons and Societies, Terms)




About the Author

About the Translators



When I first learned that Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third Generation would soon be meeting and communing with European readers of Chinese society and culture – including ardent scholars across many fields of study – I began writing this foreword for the English edition with feelings of joy and congratulations. For many years, Western Sinology’s gaze on China and the Far East has largely been focused upon its classical texts and its ancient culture. Thus, this English publication of a book on contemporary Chinese culture in Germany, in particular one featuring a collection of non-mainstream poetry, is no common feat! ostasien Verlag’s decision to bring this book to overseas readers is a testament to their discernment, courage, and commitment to a responsibility to know and understand contemporary China’s society and culture. It is a decision well deserving of approbation.

Mainland China in the 1980s, during the new era of so-called Reform and Opening-up, was a time and place known for, of course, its surging economic growth, but its roaring cultural transformation and reconstruction also caught the world’s attention. This cultural revival became a window, an image, through which contemporary Chinese society could be understood. Readers familiar with Chinese history know that, for a very long period – including the decade of devastation marked by the “Cultural Revolution” – the whole of the vast country had fallen into an economic stupor, its citizens delivered to destitution. The country’s cultural landscape, too, had been razed, brought to waste and decay. It was against this historical backdrop and its attendant cultural ruins that the curtains rose, delineating a new age of transformation and restoration. And indeed, what followed were vivacious scenes of rebuilding and creation, amid an ebullient atmosphere. At last, here was a new version of China, on display to those who were watching.

My friend and the author of this book, Sun Jilin, set foot as a student onto the campus of Shandong University during this very period, in 1979. It was the third year after the end of the “Cultural Revolution” and the reinstatement of the College Entrance Exam, and campuses were alight with an atmosphere of budding renewal and exuberance. The long-sealed-off world of Chinese academia, suppressed by the Marxist-Leninist ideology of class struggle, now, with more independence, breathed in new ideas and culture. Trends of thought that critiqued the “Cultural Revolution”, or challenged and reconsidered leftist ideology, were beginning to circulate. “Practice is the sole criterion of truth”, “Marxism is also a humanism”, “Diversified theories of human beings”, “Literature is the study of humans”, “Renaissance”, “Humanism”, “Existentialism” – this lexicon of ideas, along with other philosophical and sociocultural phenomena from the West, was making its way onto campuses, and these ideas were soon the subject of much discourse and exploration.

The literary world stood at the vanguard of this movement. The schools of “scar literature” and “literature of introspection” were already bourgeoning, and even more prominently, the underground poetry of the “Cultural Revolution”, once composed in secret and hidden from the view of the public, was now rising up, surfacing before a stunned Chinese populace. This underground poetry soon took on symbolic significance, ultimately producing an enduring impact upon the new era of post-1980s literature that was then in the process of taking shape. What resulted was the “Today School” of Poetry, later known as the “Misty School”. Many believed that this period of new literary thought, represented by the Misty School, was no less than a contemporary cultural renaissance in Mainland China. Its significance and value were not only for its role in opening the doors to a new literary era, but also for its function as an ideological continuation of the humanistic ideology that had defined the May Fourth Movement (“treat humans as humans”, stated one mantra) and initiated the modern tradition. Liberated from the yoke of radical politics, literature underwent a sort of baptism into a new doctrine: treating people as the central subject matter of artistic work.

Sun Jilin, it would seem, as a student on the buzzing university campus, fully embraced his initiation into these new waves of thought and aesthetic theory, and whole-heartedly threw himself into their promotion and advocacy. He was one of the principal members of Shandong University’s “High Sail” Poetry Society, which would later be regarded as the birthplace of Mainland China’s “Second Wave”, or “Third Generation” School of Poetry. Sun, along with other student poets – including those who would later become leadership figures in the Third Generation School, such as Han Dong – actively organized and participated in the society’s campus poetry activities. Students created posters featuring poetic verse, circulated underground journals, and even sponsored Christmas events, which, at the time, fell under the designation of “Western capitalist activities”. In an essay, Sun once wrote that this generation of fervent Misty School followers, including himself, all started out from the same position, as chasers of the movement, copying and imitating the work of poets like Bei Dao or Yang Lian. Their standard of poetry was dictated by how closely their imitations approximated the Misty Poems. Whether by intention or not, all of them had found themselves, at some point, pursuing the footsteps of Bei Dao and the other Misty Poets. It was not until later, when they experienced a sort of awakening, that they turned toward their own faculties of perception and reflection. The switch flipped suddenly, seemingly overnight. However close their poetic approximations had been, they realized, still, one was merely writing like a Misty Poet, and not as one’s own self. These ersatz efforts, it seemed, would never surpass actual Misty Poetry. Thus, writing poems in imitation of the Misty School was no longer an option.

From then on, pursuing the need to write poetry of their own, this generation of poets began forging a path that diverged from the Misty School. Their exploration no longer used Misty Poetry as a north star, and in fact, even attempted to steer away from it. Their poetry was evolving to become more natural, more spontaneous, and more authentic. It was imbued with an individual vitality and a personalized language. In these ways, an aesthetics of poetry, separate from the Misty School, began to take shape, producing such representative works as “Mountain People” and “Old Fisherman”. In 1982, Han Dong left the university campus, going first to Xi’an, and then to Nanjing. By 1984, he had established a new literary society, and in March of the following year, he launched the journal Others. This, along with other poetry societies, including Sichuan’s “No-No”, formed the edifice of the Third Generation School, a movement that was now sweeping across the country.

The name “Third Generation” was one given by the poets to themselves, a gesture of self-actualization. Most of the Third Generation poets were born in the late 1950s through the mid-1960s. Naturally, then, theirs was a very different world from that of the earlier generation of revolutionary poets, who were active in the 1950s. As one takes a closer look at historical context, it becomes clear that this same difference existed between the Third Generation and the Misty Poets. Although the Misty Poets also emerged on the scene in the 1980s, preceding the Third Generation only by a couple of years, they were a cohort forged by the decade of the “Cultural Revolution”. The younger Third Generation poets had instead come of age in the larger social context and spirit of the Reform and Opening Up. The temporal distance between the two generations, while slight, led to wide and fundamental differences in life experience, in access to and degree of cultural exposure and education, and in both aesthetic orientation and inclination. If Misty Poetry can be described as tending toward the grand sweeps of historical and sociocultural phenomena, then Third Generation Poetry, in contrast, dispels culture in favor of a return to “the thing itself,” to the narrative of everyday experiences. While the Misty Poets were concerned with an aesthetic of the sublime, toward creating an image of “Man” (with a capital “M”) who is endowed with a sense of duty and mission, the Third Generation poets placed their emphasis on individual perception and experience, thereby doing away with the lofty idea of a collective consciousness. Furthermore, while the Misty Poets utilized metaphor, symbolism, and rhetoric, building layers of depth and meaning, the Third Generation poets sought simplicity, objectivity, and ordinary, everyday language. In this way, the two schools split off into entirely distinct poetic directions. The contention that erupted at the end of the 20th century between the orthodox position held by the public and the more avant-garde position of the intellectual world, as well as the ideological fracture that occurred in the mid-1990s, were both responses to and reflections of this poetic divergence between the Misty Poets and Third Generation poets. Here, the author’s perspective seems to be: If a split between tradition and modernity ever ruptured the sociocultural fabric of 20th century Mainland China, then the period surrounding the May Fourth Movement marks the first of these occasions, and the events of 1985, including the emergence of the Third Generation Poetry movement, marks the second.

         At first glance, this book appears as a case study of Chinese 1980s avant-garde poetry, but it also possesses, to a large degree, the qualities of a period history. As two of the era’s major cultural arteries, the Misty and Third Generation schools of poetry were persistent forces in shaping and influencing the path upon which the era unfolded, as well as the relationship between writing and society, history, and culture. As we embark upon the third decade of a new century, the intelligentsia of Mainland China has expressed a palpable yearning – both emotional and intellectual – for a reversion to the social and artistic climate of the 1980s. On one level, the atmosphere of that former decade responds perhaps to a need and appetite for sociocultural reflection in contemporary Mainland China. On another level, this nostalgia testifies to the enduring significance and impact of the literary and cultural trends of the 1980s, embodied in large part by these two schools of poetry, upon an entire era. This book might be considered as a representative volume, or perhaps a window, through which readers are led right into the scenes of action. There, aided by a perspective both poetic-aesthetic and sociocultural, the phylogenetics, historical progression, and fundamental characteristics of this new age in Mainland China begin to unfurl and manifest.

I echo other reviewers, here, by reiterating that Sun has written this book not merely as a scholar, but as a first-hand traveler and participant in this literary movement and journey. A generous guide into the scenes of these historic years, Sun was also an early pioneer in providing readers with keen and precise analyses of this era, which, while fueled with passionate emotion, have never strayed from his steady and prudent reasoning. He provides for us – comprehensively, rigorously, and with clarity – deep analysis and interpretation of the two important ideological shifts of the 1980s, represented by the Misty School and the Third Generation, supporting the discussion with historical context, as well as exposition on aesthetic perspectives and distinct artistic trends. This book is truly a feat worthy of both the reader’s confidence and admiration!

The structure of this book opens with a historical narrative, a section entitled “Context and Progression”, which focuses on and provides accounts of specific events, significant turning points, as well as the emergence and development of various schools of poetry. The descriptions involving literary salons, meetings, prominent figures and groups, and campus poetry societies are remarkably detailed and vivid, as the author traces the footsteps of these schools of poetry and delivers us to the iconic scenes of their formation and development. Then come the two sections on Misty and Third Generation poe­tics, which are focused investigations and discourses on the two schools of poetry.

Here I provide several excerpts from Mainland Chinese reviewers, the intention of which is not to overwhelm with commentary on the book, but rather to equip readers with a few angles of understanding and penetration as they begin their journey into the pages of this volume:

The progression from Misty Poetry to Third Generation Poetry is a key moment in the development of China’s New Poetry. The 1980s were a heady and competitive time for young poets in the poetic arena. Sun Jilin’s latest book, Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third Generation, is a comprehensive survey and deep interpretation of the era’s poetic milieu and brings us plenty of new insights. Sun’s generation-spanning research details the boundaries by which poetic communities were formed and divided, and illuminates the interactive dynamics between the history and culture of poetry during this period of transformation. These subjects, in the study of poetics, are filled with fascination.

These subjects are precisely Sun’s forte… An active member of the campus poets during the 1980s, Sun, along with Han Dong and others, belonged to Shandong University’s intrepid and pioneering “High Sail” Poetry Society. After formalizing these experiences onto paper, Sun became one of the earliest as well as most qualified of speakers and researchers on the subject of the Third Generation poets, efforts which earned him the designation as one of “Ten Outstanding Young Reviewers of Contemporary Chinese Poetry”. For these reasons, then, one naturally possesses very high expectations for this book! [Zhang Yaxin 2008]

After we’ve been sufficiently tormented, brought to a maddening breaking point, by the intrusion of clunky phrases from foreign lexicons, or the so-called scholarship composed of convoluted and delirious expositions, we awaken to an obvious yet vital principle: a review depends not merely on the scholarly qualifications of its reviewer, but more essentially, it relies on a sort of mysterious kinship between reviewer and subject. Between a researcher and the subject of research, there exists a near-miraculous spiritual alignment and affinity – as can be found in Qian Liqun’s relationship with Lu Xun, or Li Jie with Zhou Zuoren, or Ling Yu with Shen Congwen. In this regard, it is hard to imagine an individual more suited than Sun Jilin for this project. While reading Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third Generation and recognizing the spiritual nature in the communication and encounters between Sun Jilin and the Misty and Third Generation poets, one understands that it was only by the shared elements of their individual talent, life experience, artistic sensibility, and dauntless, forward thinking, that these poets were led onto each other’s paths. [Li Yeping 2008]

In addition to the profound impressions and insights offered by this book, and beyond even the vivid scenes from the author’s personal experiences that recreate the concrete context and progression of these two profound schools of poetry, the author, most importantly of all, through his rigorous interpretation of the ideological and cultural threads running through Misty Poetry and Third Generation Poetry, manifests the broader emotional and ideological trends of our era, as well as its cultural and philosophical positions. From his vantage point, the Misty School could be described as a continuation of the enlightenment tradition of the May Fourth Movement, and in this way, it achieved a sort of tandem position in relation to modern art. Third Generation Poetry, on the other hand, diverging from this path, opened up a new age of poetics distinct from Misty Poetry …The various dimensions and characteristics of the avant-garde poetry of this new age can be seen as symptoms of our era's ideology and culture, as well as a representation of our phenomenology. [Li Zhengtang 2006]

Poems are a condensation of the history of a people and the spirit of an era, the hidden metaphors and symbols of the spiritual realm. Poetry critic and writer Sun Jilin has always grounded his focus upon the text, yet transcended the text, as he became one of the earliest scholars to break ground in the arena of spiritual and cultural research in this field. His aim is to return to the actual site of the historic narrative, to the events and things themselves, and he yearns to discover and reveal – through concrete scenes of lived experience, and through the fragmented pieces of history reveal – the traces of a collective public spirit and a people’s new emotional and psychological makeup. Looking back, both the Misty Poets’ spirit of rationality and the Third Generation poets’ consciousness of the life of the individual, have come to form the precious image of our spirit, and have become the shared spiritual wealth of our era; and, to a large degree, they have influenced contemporary thought and aesthetic development. [Chen Chao 2008]

Well, let us draw to a close here. To all the readers interested in contemporary Chinese society and culture, whether from Europe or anywhere else in the world, may this book offer some further understanding and insight. A different China is approaching the world, and it wishes to continue receiving the world’s understanding and attention.
This is but a beginning!

Chien Cheng-chen (Chair professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan),
written on April 16th, 2020



It is a long academic journey, and I have been on the way. The road to the future is unknown and maybe tiring, but it is charming and inviting. I can only focus walk ahead. Perhaps the goal is always somewhere faraway, which cannot be reached even if one spends the whole life walking, but it does not matter. What is important is that we are on the way, and it is enough to have all the beautiful flowers and grasses around us.

The writing of this book is an epitome of the long academic journey, which can be traced back to the late 1980s. I participated in a funded research project on the new-era poetry. I witnessed or experienced the turbulence, evolution, and growth of the new poetry, and I had deep feelings about Misty Poetry and the Third Generation Poetry. The first four chapters in the section of “The Third Generation Poetics” were written in the year 1988. They were shelved afterwards due to some historical reasons. The one entitled Cultural Deconstruction: The Meaning of the Third Generation Poetry was published in Young Thinkers in 1990, and the others were collected in the New Era Poetic Waves published in 1991. After that, I kept paying attention to the connections between the Third Generation Poetry and the trend of thoughts of the times and wrote a few other papers, which were published in different journals or on various websites. I kept their original wording when including them into this book. As to Misty Poetry, I had been steeped in and particularly concerned about it, though I had never done any close investigation. However, I always had a dream to make a systematic research on the evolution and tendency of Misty Poetry and the Third Generation Poetry as well as their relations to the ideological trend of the times. Luckily, I have been able to focus and worked on it for the past few years. Thus I have this book, which fulfills the dream of mine.

Of course, along with the book comes regret, because “being on the way” means an extending space and there always seem to be some imperfect factors once we close it up. For example, I have not been able to make a detailed examination of the feminine writing and boorism, which form an important wing of the Third Generation Poetry in my view, and the further development and influence of the Third Generation Poetry in the 1990s. For this reason, I do not regard the book as an ultimate or finished product, and it is merely a small stop on the way.

The new century has started, but an era is not over. I will walk ahead with times and the poetry of the times. The process of being on the way, poetry, or life will always be beautiful and charming…

This research project and the publication of this book are funded by the Ministry of Education and the Publication Fund Committee of Shandong University. I would like to express my gratitude for their support. In addition, I would like to thank my friend Li Zhengtang for planning and arranging the publication of this book. Lastly, I am also grateful to my classmates, friends, teachers, and my family for their care and encouragement.

Sun Jilin
September 18th, 2004.


Our sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Martin Hanke and Dr. Dorothee Schaab-Hanke with East Asia Publishing House, who have made the publication of the English translation of the book Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third Generation possible. We would also like to thank Prof. Sun Jilin, author of this book, for explaining to us the implications of the text, updating some of the references, and providing us with unreserved help whenever we had difficulty in the translation process, Ms. Wei Dandan for proofreading the translation carefully, translating part of the bibliography, sharing with us her perspective on poetics and philosophy, and raising thought-provoking questions which were immensely helpful for us to revise our translation, and Ms. Li Zifei and Ms. Bian Qiaoyu for checking the references mentioned in this book and correcting errors for us.

About the Author

Sun Jilin is Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at the School of Culture and Communication, Shandong University, Weihai, China. His research interests mainly lie in Chinese contemporary literature and poetics, particularly modern Chinese cultural thoughts and avant-garde poetry. Lately he has been devoted to the research on poetic narratology. He has been Director of the Research Institute of Chinese Contemporary Literature of Shandong University as well as Director of the Research Center of Chinese Contemporary Poetry. He participated in the organization of the Cloud and Sail Poetry Association and witnessed the development of Chinese contemporary poetry from Misty Poetry to the Third-Generation poetry. He is a representative figure in the review of and the theoretical research on the Third-Generation poetry. His representative works include On the New Poetry Tide (1991), A Wandering Life: Zhu Xiang (1998), Inherent Eyes (2001), Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third-Generation (2004), and Contemporary Poetry: Narration and Comments (2015), among others.

About the Translators

Cui Ying translated Part II and III of the book. She received her PhD from the City University of Hong Kong. She was a visiting scholar at Cornell University. She is Professorat the School of Translation Studies, Shandong University, Weihai, China. Her major research interests include translation, poetics, and linguistics, particularly advertisement translation and cognitive poetics. She has published papers in various journals such as Babel: International Journal for Translation, Perspectives: Studies in Translatology and JoSTrans: The Journal of Specialised Translation. She also co-edits the International Journal of Translation, Interpretation, and Applied Linguistics (IJTIAL).

Huang Xiuguo translated Part I of the book. She is Associate Professor of American Literature at Shandong University, Weihai. She received her PhD from Fudan University. She is a member of the Translators’ Association of China. She has published the following books From Community to Society: an Analysis of the Humanism in Snopes Trilogy (2018) and All-in-one English Handbook for Going Abroad (2007). Her other publications include “A Review of the Comparative Study of Mo Yan and Faulkner in China” and “From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft: The Social Transformation as Reflected in The Hamlet”.

Bibliography (Articles, Authors, Books, Periodicals, Poems)

A Brief Discussion of Western Modernist Literature, see Chen Hui.
“A Brief Note on Others” (essay), see Han Dong.
“A Bundle” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“A Cloud in Pants” (long poem), see Mayakovsky.
“A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste” (essay), see Ezra Pound.
A Glossary of Literary Terms, see Abrams.
“A Literary Manifesto”, see Moréas.
A Madman’s Diary (short story), see Lu Xun.
“A Narrative Tone of New Poetry”, see Yu Cijiang.
“A New Project: On a Few Poems of Gu Cheng” (essay), see Gong Liu.
A Philosophy of Man, see Schaff.
“A Small Tree of Hope” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
“A Song at Xizhong” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
“A Song for the Changjiang River Sung by a Northener” (poem), see Yang Lian.
A Ticket to the Stars, see Aksyonov.
A Treasury of 20th Century Classical Chinese Literature, see Xie Mian and Qian Liqun.
A Wandering Life: Zhu Xiang, see Sun Jilin.
“A Will” (poem), see Jiang He.
A Wu 阿吾. “Shi de zijiu, cong bianxing dao bu bianxing” 诗的自救,从变形到不变形 [The Self-Salvation of Poetry: From Deformation to Non-Defor­ma­tion], Yishu guangjiao 艺术广角 1988.3, 17-21.
“About Big Wild Goose Pagoda” (poem), see Han Dong.
“About Tradition” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Abrams, Meyer Howard. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1957 [cf. Zhu Jinpeng 1990].
Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, see Hegel.
“After losing peace” (essay), see Xie Mian.
“After Three Worldly Roles” (essay), see Han Dong.
“Against Interpretation” (essay) / Against Interpretation and Other Essays, see Sontag.
Aggeler William (tr.). The Flowers of Evil, by Baudelaire, Charles-Pierre. Fresno, CA: Academy library guild, 1954 [English translation of Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal].
Aiwu 艾芜 [Tang Daogeng 汤道耕]. Nanxing ji 南行记 [Heading South]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1980.
Aksyonov, Vasily Pavlovich Аксёнов, Василий Павлович. Zvezdnyi bilet Звездный билет [A Ticket to the Stars]. Moscow, 1961 [cf. MacAndrew 1963; Wang Shixie 1963].
Alexander, Lloyd (tr.). Nausea, by Sartre, Jean-Paul. Norfolk: New Directions, 1938 [English translation of Sartre 1938].
“Always Keep in Mind the Direction of Socialist Literature and Art” (essay), see Xu Jingya.
An Essay on Man, see Cassirer.
An Instant (wall-newspaper), see Chana.
“An Uncontrollable New Poetry Wave: To Begin with Shu Ting’s Creation and Controversy”, see Liu Denghan.
Analects (literary magazine), see Lunyu.
“Anecdote of a Jar” (poem), see Stevens.
Anhui wenxue 安徽文学 [Anhui Literature] (literary magazine).
“Announcement” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Anon. “Charm of a Maiden Singer” [Nian nujiao” 念奴娇] (poem).
———. “Hainan qingsi” 海南情思 [Hainan Sentiments] (poem).
———. “Liu Shaoqi suan laoji” 刘少奇算老几 [Liu Shaoqi, Who the Hell do You Think You Are!] (poem), in: Shoudu dazhuan yuanxiao hongdaihui “Hongweibing wenyi” bianjibu 1968, 49.
———. “Red all over the River” [Manjiang hong” 满江红] (poem).
———. “Ye” 夜 [Night] (poem).
“Answer” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Answers to Twenty-five Questions” (essay), see Yu Jian and Zhu Wen.
“Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?”, see Kant.
Anthology of Bei Dao’s Poems, see Bei Dao.
Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Experimental Poetry, see Tang Xiaodu and Wang Jiaxin.
Anthology of Expressive Lyrics, see Shu Ting and Gu Cheng.
Anthology of Mang Ke’s Poems, see Mang Ke.
Anthology of Misty Poems see Yan Yuejun; see Yang Lian; see Yu Daxiang and Liu Qiuling.
Anthology of Modern American Poetry, see Zhao Yiheng.
Anthology of Poems (1917–1927), see Zhu Ziqing.
“Anthology of Poems from Others” (collection of poems), see Yu Jian.
“Anti-Value” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou.
Anti-Value Era: Deconstruction of the Value of Contempoary Literary Ideas (collection of essays), see Zhou Lunyou.
Approaching Postmodernism, see Fokkema and Bertens.
“Arc” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Art” (poem in the “Taiyangcheng zhaji” series), see Bei Dao.
Atkinson, Charles Francis (tr.). The Decline of the West. 2 vols. London: Allen and Unwin, 1926 [English translation of Spengler 1918–1922].
Augustine [of Hippo]. Confessiones [Confessions]. cf. Watts 1912; Zhou Shiliang 1981].
“Autumn” (poem), see Du Yunxie; Mang Ke.
“Awkwardness” (poem), see Xian Meng.
“Axis towards the 21st Century” (essay), see Eisenstadt.

Ba Tie 巴铁. “Tade zhiniu, tade reqing: lijie Liao Yiwu” 他的执拗,他的热情—理解廖亦武 [His Stubbornness, His Passion: Understanding Liao Yiwu] (essay), Zhongguo wenxue 1986.11, 111-116.
“Babi Yar”, see Yevtushenko.
Babi Yar and Other Poems, see Su Hang.
“Baiyangdian” (poem), see Gen Zi.
“Ballads” (poem), see Fang Han.
“Bank” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Banpo” (poem series), see Yang Lian.
Baron, Albert Heyem Nachmen (tr.). Essay on the Creative Imagination, by Ribot, Théodule Armand. Chicago: Open Court, 1906 [English translation of Ribot 1900].
Baskin, Wade (tr.). Course in General Linguistics, by Saussure, Ferdinand de. New York: Philosophical Library, 1959 [English translation of Saussure 1916].
Bass, Alan (tr.). Writing and Difference, by Derrida, Jacques. London: Routledge, 1978 [English translation of Derrida 1967].
“Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?”, see Kant.
Baudelaire, Charles-Pierre. Les Fleurs du mal [The Flowers of Evil] (collection of poems, published between 1857 and 1868). Cf. Aggeler 1954; Guo Hong’an 1987.
“Bazhong ganjue” 八种感觉 [Eight Feelings], column in Feifei 1 (1986).
Becket, Samuel Barclay. En attendant Godot: pièce en deux actes [Waiting for Godot: Tragicomedy in Two Acts]. Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1952.
———. (tr.). Waiting for Godot: Tragicomedy in Two Acts. New York: Grove, 1954 [English translation by the author; cf. Shi Xianrong 1965].
“Before the Voice of ‘Rising’” (essay), see Zheng Bonong.
“Behind the Ring of Light” (essay), see Shu Ting.
Bei Dao 北岛 [Zhao Zhenkai 赵振开]. Mosheng de haitan 陌生的海滩 [Strange Beach] (collection of poems). Beijing: Jintian bianjibu, 1978.
———. Bei Dao shi xuan 北岛诗选 [Anthology of Bei Dao’s Poems]. Guangzhou: Xinshiji, 1986.
———. “An” 岸 [Bank] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 47.
———. “Bodong” 波动) [Fluctuation] (poem).
———. “Chuanpiao” 船票 [Steamer Ticket] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 56.
———. “Chudian” 触电 [Electric Shock] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 163.
———. “Dao” 岛 [Island] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 41.
———. “Emeng” 噩梦 [Nightmare] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 108.
———. “Gangkou de meng” 港口的梦 [Dream of the Harbor] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 80.
———. “Guanyu chuantong” 关于传统 [About Tradition] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 136.
———. “Hong fanchuan” 红帆船 [Red Sail Boat] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 63.
———. “Huanghun: dingjiatan” 黄昏:丁家滩 [Nightfall: Dingjiatan Village] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 48.
———. “Huida” 回答 [Answer] (poem, written 1976), Shi kan 1979.3, 46; see also in: Bei Dao 1986, 25.
———. “Jieju huo kaishi” 结局或开始 [The End or the Beginning] (poem), Shanghai wenxue 上海文学 1980.12, 47-48; see also in: Bei Dao 1986, 75.
———. “Jiexian” 界线 [Boundaries] (poem).
———. “Lengku de xiwang” 冷酷的希望 [Cold Hope] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 10.
———. “Lüli” 履历 [Record] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 114.
———. “Mitu” 迷途 [Lost Way] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 82.
———. “Mosheng de haitan” 陌生的海滩 [Strange Beach], in: Bei Dao 1986, 88.
———. “Mosheng ren” 陌生人 [Strangers], in: Bei Dao 1986, 132.
———. “Shinian zhi jian” 十年之间 [Within Ten Years] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 90.
———. “Taiyangcheng zhaji” [Reading Notes of Sun City, Freedom] 太阳城札记 [Reading Notes of Sun City], 1: “Ziyou” 自由 [Freedom]; 2: “Yishu” 艺术 [Art]; 3: “Zuguo” 祖国 [Motherland] in: Bei Dao 1986, 21-22 [1], 22 [2], 23-24 [3].
———. “Tongmou” 同谋 [Conspirators] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 117.
———. “Wuti” 无题 [No Title] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 116.
———. “Xuangao” 宣告 [Announcement], Renmin wenxue 1980.10, 33; also in: Bei Dao 1986, 1986, 73.
———. “Yiqie” 一切 [Everything] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 29.
———. “Yishu” 一束 [A Bundle] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 86.
———. “Yuyan” 语言 [Languages] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 164.
———. “Yuye” 雨夜 [Raining night] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 52; see also Mingzuo xinshang 名作欣赏 1998.1, 106.
———. “Yuzhong jishi” 雨中纪事 [Record in the Rain] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 134.
———. “Zhi duzhe” 致读者 [To Our Readers], Jintian 1978, 1-2.
———. “Zou ba” 走吧 [Let’s Go] (poem), in: Bei Dao 1986, 27.
———. “Yishu” 艺术 [Art] (2nd poem in the “Taiyangcheng zhaji” series).
———. “Ziyou” 自由 [Freedom] (1st poem in the “Taiyangcheng zhaji” series).
———. “Zuguo” 祖国 [Motherland] (3rd poem in the “Taiyangcheng zhaji” series)
Being and Time, see Heidegger.
Believe in the Future! (collection of poem), see Shi Zhi.
„Believe in the Future!“ (poem), see Shi Zhi.
Bi Hua 璧华 [Ji Fuhua 纪馥华] and Yang Ling 杨零 (eds.). Jueqi de shiqun: Zhongguo dangdai menglong­shi yu shilun xuanji 崛起的诗群—中国当代朦胧诗与诗论选集 [Rising Poetic Groups: Collection of Chinese Contemporary Misty Poetry and Poetic Reviews]. Hongkong: Dangdai wen­xue yanjiu­she, 1984.
Biejiaoshi 蹩脚诗 [Doggerel] (collection of poems).
“Big Buddha” (poem), see Song Qu and Song Wei.
“Big Wild Goose Pagoda” (poem), see Yang Lian.
Binkley, Luther John. Conflict of Ideals: Changing Values in the Western Society. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1969 [cf. Ma Yuande 1983].
“Biography and Views on Poetry” (essay), see Han Dong.
“Biography of Shi Zhi from 1964 to 1979”, see Lin Mang.
“Birds Hiding from Rain” (poem), see Yu Jian.
“Black Awning Boat” (poem), see Yang Lian.
“Black Desert” (poem series), see Tang Yaping.
“Blessing” (poem), see Duo Duo.
“Blink” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Blood of the World” (poem), see Luo Yihe.
“Blue All Over the River”, see Xu Haoyuan.
Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decamerone [completed 1353]. Londra: G. Pickering, 1825 [Cf. Payne 1886; Fang Ping and Wang Keyi 1958].
“Boli wucan” 玻璃午餐) “Glass Lunch”), column in Feifei 1 (1986).
Book of Changes, see Yijing.
“‘Boorishism’ in Vagrancy” (essay), see Li Yawei.
Bostock, Anna and Kapp, Yvonne Hélène (trs.). Men, Years, Life: Memoirs of 1891–1917. London: Macgibbon and Kee, 1961–1964 [English translation of Ehrenburg 1961–1964].
“Boundaries” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Breaking and Tilting: The Shadows of the Metamorphosis Stage”, see Xie Mian.
“Bridge over the Abyss” (poem), see Gen Zi.
Brigs (collection of poems), see Shu Ting.
“Brigs” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Brooks, Cleanth. “Irony as a Principle of Structure”, in: Zabel 1959, Vol. 2, 729-741 [cf. Bulukesi 1988].
“Bubbles” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
Burns, Robert. “Open the Door to Me, Oh”, in: Cunningham 1840, 454.

Caihong 彩虹 [Rainbow] (wall-newspaper, initiated by Wan Xia, Li Xueming and Zhu Zhiyong in the early 1980s).
Camus, Albert. L’Étranger [The Stranger]. Paris: Gallimard, 1942 [cf. Gilbert 1946; Meng An 1961].
———. Le Mythe de Sisyphe [The Myth of Sisy­phus]. Paris: Gallimard, 1942 [cf. O’Brien 195r].
“Canopy” (poem of the Banpo series), see Yang Lian.
Cao Hanjun 曹汉俊. “Wo xijing le wode yishan” 我洗净了我的衣衫 [I Have Washed My Clothes Clean] (poem).
Cao Suling 曹苏玲, Cheng Daixi 程代熙, Wang Jiaxiang 王家骧, and Chen Xiaoman 陈小曼 (trs.). Yifan Jienisuoweiqi de yitian 伊凡·杰尼索维奇的一天 [One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich], by Su’errenniqin 索尔仁尼琴 [Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1963 [Chinese translation of Solzhenitsyn 1963].
Cao Weidong 曹卫东 (tr.). Xiandaixing de zhexue huayu 现代性的哲学话语 [The Philosophical Discurse of Modernity], by Habeimasi 哈贝马斯 [Habermas, Jürgen]. Nanjing: Yilin, 2011 [Chinese translation of Habermas 1985].
Case and Lexicon, see Li Guonan.
Cassirer, Ernst. Sprache und Mythos. Ein Beitrag zum Problem der Götternamen [Language and Myth: A Contribution to the Problem of God Names]. Leipzig: Teubner, 1925 [cf. Langer 1945; Yu Xiao 1988].
———. An Essay on Man: An Introduction to a Philosophy of Human Culture. New Haven: Yale University, 1944 [cf. Gan Yang 1985].
“Cemetery” (poem of the Banpo series) by Yang Lian.
Chadwick, Charles. Symbolism. London: Methuen, 1971 [Cf. Xiao Yu 1989].
Chai Jinru 柴金如. Bei beipanle de geming: Sulian de xianzhuang ji qi qiantu 被背叛了的革命—苏联的現状及其前途 [The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going?], by Tuoluociji 托洛茨基 [Trotsky, Leon]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1963 [Chinese translation of Trotsky 1936].
Chana 刹那 [An Instant] (wall-newspaper, initiated by Li Yawei and Hu Yu in the early 1980s).
“Charm of a Maiden Singer” (poem), see Anon.
Che Qianzi 车前子. “San yuanse” 三原色 [Three Primary Colors] (poem), Mingzuo xinshang 1988.6, 100.
Chen Chao 陈超. Zhongguo tansuo shi jianshang cidian 中国探索诗鉴赏辞典 [Dictionary of Chinese Exploratory Poetry]. Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin, 1989.
———. “Kaituo yu qishi: Jueqi yu xuanxiao du hou” 开拓与启示—《崛起与喧嚣》读后 [Excavation and Illumination: After reading Rise and Noise] (essay), upload 2008-12-27. See http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5b1b0c020100 c2hm.html.
Chen Hui 陈慧. Xifang xiandaipai wenxue jianlun 西方现代派文学简论 [A Brief Discussion of Western Modernist Literature]. Shijiazhuang: Huashan wenyi, 1985.
Chen Jiaying 陈嘉映 (tr.). Cunzai yu shijian 存在与时间 [Being and Time], by Haidege 海德格 [Heidegger, Martin]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1987 [Chinese Translation of Heidegger 1927].
Chen Mo 陈默. “Jianbingxia de xiliu: tan ‘Baiyangdian shiqun’” 坚冰下的溪流—谈 “白洋淀诗群” [Streams beneath Solid Ice: On the “Poet Society at Baiyangdian] (essay), Shi tansuo 1994.4, 158-164.
Chen Xiaolin 陈晓林. Xifang de moluo 西方的没落 [The Decline of the West], by Shibingele 史宾格勒 [Spengler, Oswald]. Taipei: Yuan-Liou, 1986 [Chinese translation of Spengler 1918–1922].
Chen Yi 陈逸 (tr.). Xin jieji: dui gongcheng zhuyi zhidu de fenxi 新阶级—对共产主义制度的分析, by Derelasi 德热拉斯 [Djilas, Milovan]. Beijing: Shijie zhishi, 1963 [Chinese translation of Djilas 1958].
Chen Yongguo 陈永国 and Fu Jingchuan 傅景川 (trs.). Xiandai yu xiandai zhuyi: Xifang wenhua sichao de lishi zhuanxingi 现代与现代主义—西方文化思潮的历史转型 [Modern and Modernism: The Historical Transformation of Western Cultural Thoughts], by Ka’er 卡尔 [Karl, Frederick Robert]. Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu, 1995 [Chinese translation of Karl 1985].
Chen Zhaoquan 陈昭全 (tr.). Xifang xiandai wenxue lilun gaishu yu bijiao 西方现代文学理论概述与比较 [Modern Literary Theory: A Comparative Introduction], by Jiefusen 杰弗森 [Jefferson, Ann Margaret] and Luobi 罗比. [Robey, David]. Changsha: Hunan wenyi, 1986 [Chinese translation of Jefferson and Robey 1982].
Chen Zhongyi 陈仲义. Zhongguo menglong shiren lun 中国朦胧诗人论 [On Chinese Misty Poets]. Nanjing: Jiangsu wenyi, 1996.
———. “Xinshi chao biange le naxie chuantong yinsu” 新诗潮变革了哪些传统因素 [Some Traditional Factors Changed by the New Poetry Waves], in: Yao Jiahua 1989, 213-232.
Cheng Weidong 程蔚东. “Bie le, Shu Ting Bei Dao” 别了,舒婷北岛 [Goodbye, Shu Ting and Bei Dao] (essay). Wenhui bao 文汇报 1987-1-14.
“China, My Key Is Lost” (poem), see Liang Xiaobin.
“Chinese Department”, see Li Yawei.
China (magazine), see Zhongguo.
Chinese Literature (literary magazine), see Zhongguo wenxue.
Chipan 池畔 [Poolside] (collection of poems).
Chronicles of Modern Chinese Poetry: Complete Collection of Post-Misty Poems, see Wan Xia and Xiao Xiao.
Chu Tunan 楚图南 [Gao Han 高寒] (tr.). Caoye ji 草葉集, by Hui­teman 惠特曼 [Whitman, Walt]. Shanghai: Chen­guang, 1949 [Chinese translation of Whitman 1902].
“Coquetry Declaration”, see “Sajiao xuanyan”.
“Cold Hope” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Cold Scenery” (poem), see Yang Li.
Collected Works of “New Criticism”, see Zhao Yiheng.
Collection of No-No Works (literary journal), see Feifei zuopin ziliaoji.
Collection of Poetics by Tang Xiaodu, see Tang Xiaodu.
“Collector of an Age: Zhao Yifan” (essay), see Liao Yiwu.
Complete Collection of Gu Cheng’s Poems, see Gu Cheng.
“Confession” (poem), see Yang Lian.
Confessiones / Confessions, see Augustine.
Conflict of Ideals, see Binkley.
“Conspirators” (poem), see Bei Dao
Contemporaries (literary magazine), see Tongdai.
Contemporary Literary and Artistic Trends (journal), see Dangdai wenyi sichao.
Contemporary Youth (journal), see Dangdai qingnian.
Controversy on Misty Poetry see Yao Jiahua.
“Conversation by Writing at Ancient Dam” (essay), see Han Dong and Zhu Wen.
Coquetry (literary magazine), see Sajiao.
“Correspondences” (poem), see Baudelaire.
Cosmic Wind (literary magazine), see Yuzhou feng.
Cours de linguistique générale / Course in General Linguistics, see Saussure.
“Craftsmanship” (poem), See Duo Duo.
Cui Jian 崔健. “Yiwu suoyou” 一无所有 [Having Nothing] (poem, written 1986).
Cunningham, Allan (ed.). The Works of Robert Burns. London: Tegg, 1840.
“Cypress Vine Dreaming of Moon” (poem), see Shu Ting.

Dai Wangshu 戴望舒 (tr.). Luo’erjia shi chao 洛尔伽诗钞 [Poem Collection of Federico Garcia Lorca]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1956.
Dallmayr, Fred Reinhard. Twilight of Subjectivity: Contributions to a Post-In­di­vid­ualist Theory. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, 1981 [cf. Wan 1992].
Dandelion (journal), see Pugongying.
Dangdai qingnian 当代青年 [Contemporary Youth] (journal).
Dangdai wenyi sichao 当代文艺思潮 [Contemporary Literary and Artistic Trends] (journal), published in Lanzhou.
Dante Alighieri. Divina Commedia [Divine Comedy]. Cf. Wang Weike 1948.
Daxuesheng shibao 大学生诗报 [Journal of College Student Poetry] (poetic journal), established by Shang Zhongmin and Yan Xiaodong in 1985 and published in Chongqing.
“Daxuesheng shiyuan” 大学生诗苑 (“Garden of ‘College Student’ Poetry”), column in Feitian.
“Dazu Stone Carvings” (poem), see Wang Chuanping.
Decamerone, see Boccaccio.
“Declaration of the ‘College Students’’ Poetry School” (essay), see Shang Zhong­min.
“Declaration of Extremism” (essay), see Xu Jingya et al.
“Declaration of No-Noism” (essay), see Lan Ma.
“Depression”, see Jiang He.
“Der Panther” (poem), see Rilke.
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne, see Habermas.
Der Untergang des Abendlands, see Spengler.
Derrida, Jacques. L’écriture et la difference [Writing and Difference]. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1967 [cf. Bass 1978; Zhang Ning 2001].
“Destructive Breakthrough of Existent Poetic Aesthetic Notions”, see Shang Zhongmin.
“Dialogue about Poetry” (essay), see Ke Yan.
Dialogue between Thought and Poetry, see Yu Hong.
Dickstein, Morris. Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Dictionary of Chinese Exploratory Poetry, see Chen Chao.
“Dictionary of No-Noism”, see Zhou Lunyou.
Die Permanenz der Kunst: Wider eine bestimmet Marxistische Aesthetik, see Marcuse.
Digest of Chinese Journals, see Xinhua wenzhai.
“Disandai shi: dui hunluan de chengqing. Shang Zhongmin, Yang Li, Lan Ma, Zhou Lunyou Chengdu duihua lu” 第三代诗—对混乱的澄清. 尚仲敏、杨黎、蓝马、周伦佑成都对话录 [The Third Generation Poetry: The Clarification of Confusion. Conversations of Shang Zhongmin, Yang Li, Lan Ma, and Zhou Lunyou in Chengdu], unpublished document, 1988.
“Discussion of the Creation of New Poetry” (column), see Fujian wenxue.
Disintegration (collection of poems), see Sifenwulie.
Divina Commedia / Divine Comedy, see Dante.
“Divine Revelation” (essay), see Shu Ting.
Djilas, Milovan. Djilas The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System. New York: Praeger, 1957.
———. Ђилас, Милован. Novyj klass: analiz kommunističeskoj sistemy Новый класс: Анализ коммунистической системы [The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System]. New York: Praeger, 1958 [cf. Djilas 1957; Chen Yi 1963].
Doggerel (collection of poems), see Biejiaoshi.
“Don’t Miss Anything on the Way” (poem), see Yu Jian.
“Don’t Play too much with the Bird in our Hands” (essay), see Shu Ting.
“Dream of the Harbor” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Du Liyan 杜丽燕 (tr.). Rendao zhuyi wenti 人道主义问题 [The Question of Humanism], by Geyikeqi 戈伊科奇 [Goicoechea, David L.], Luke 卢克 [Luik, John C.], and Madigen 马迪根 [Madigan, Tim]. Beijing: Dongfang, 1997 [Chinese translation of Goicoechea et al 1990].
Du Yunxie 杜运燮. “Qiu” 秋 [Autumn], Shi kan 1980.1, 32.
“Duncan” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Dunhuang” (poem series), see Yang Lian.
Duo Duo 多多 [Li Shizheng 栗世征, also called Bai Ye 白夜]. Xingli: shi 38 shou 行礼—诗38首 [Salute: 38 Poems]. Nanning: Lijiang, 1988.
———. Amusitedan de heliu 阿姆斯特丹的河流 [Rivers in Amsterdam]. Taiyuan: Beiyue wenyi, 2000.
———. “Bei maizang de Zhongguo shiren (1972–1978)” 被埋葬的中国诗人 (1972–1978) [The Buried Chinese Poets (1972–1978)] (essay), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 195–202.
———. “Dang renmin cong ganlao shang zhanqi” 当人民从干酪上站起 [When People Stand up from Cheese] (poem), in: Yan Yuejun 1985 [2002], 355.
———. “Huanghun” 黄昏 [Evening] (poem), Yilin 译林, 2004.1, 66.
———. “Huiyi yu sikao” 回忆与思考 [Memories and Reflections] (cycle of 5 poems, written 1972/73).
———. “Mizhou” 蜜周 [Honey Week] (poem, written 1972/73), in Duo Duo 2000, 3.
———. “Shenqiu ” 深秋 [Late Autumn] (poem)
———. “Shouyi” 手艺 [Craftsmanship] (poem, written 1972/73).
———. “Wanxiang” 万象 [Panorama] (cycle of 14 poems, written 1972/73).
———. “Wuti” 无题 [Untitled], in: Yu Daxiang and Liu Qiulong 1986, 144.
———. “Xinglai” 醒来 [Wake up] (poem), Chouxiaoya 丑小鸭, 1986.12, 47.
———. “Zhi taiyang” 致太阳 [To the Sun] (poem, written 1972/73).
———. “Zhufu” 祝福 [Blessing] (poem), in: Duo Duo 1988, 2.
Duan Dezhi 段德智. “Xifang zhutixing sixiang de lishi yanjin yu fazhan aianjing: jian ping ‘zhuti siwang’ guandian” 西方主体性思想的历史演进与发展前景—兼评“主体死亡”观点 [The Historical Evolution and Development Prospects of Western Subjectivity Thought: also on the View of “Subject's Death”], Wuhan daxue xuebao 武汉大学学报, 2000.5, 650-654.
Dylan, Bob. “Forever Young” (poem, written 1974).
———. “Like a Rolling Stone” (poem, written 1965).

Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
“Earth” (poem), see Yang Lian.
“Earthen Pot” (poem of the Banpo series), by Yang Lian.
Eastman Max (tr.). The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going?, by Trotsky, Leon. New York: Double­day, Doran & Co, 1937 [English translation of Trotsky 1936].
“Eccentric” (poem), see Yang Li.
Echo Wall (magazine), see Huiyinbi.
“Edited Autobiography” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigoryevich Эренбург, Илья Григорьевич. Ottepel’: povest’ v dvukh chastyakh Оттепель: повесть в двух частях [The Thaw: A Tale in Two Parts]. Moscow, 1954 [cf. Harari 1955; Qian Cheng 1963].
———. Lyudi, gody, zhizn' Люди, годы, жизнь [Men, Years, Life]. Moscow, 1961–1964 [cf. Bostock and Kapp 1961–1964; Feng Nanjiang and Qin Shunxin 1962–1964].
“Eight Feelings”, see “Bazhong ganjue”.
“Electric Shock” (poem), See Bei Dao.
Eliot, T. S. The Sacred Wood. Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London: Methuen, 1920 [cf. Wang Enzhong 1989].
———. “Hamlet and His Problems”, in: Eliot 1920, 87-94 [cf. Ailüete 1989].
———. “The Waste Land”, The Criterion 1.1 (1922), 50-64. [Cf. Zhao Luorui 1937].
Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah [Aisensitate 艾森斯塔特]. “Maixiang ershiyi shiji de zhouxin” 迈向二十一世纪的轴心 [Axis towards the 21st Century] (essay), Ershiyi shiji [21st Century], 57 (2000.1), 4-19.
En attendant Godot, see Becket.
“Encounter” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“End-Result” (poem), see Lioa Yiwu.
“Essay on Parentage and Origins” (essay), see Yu Luoke.
Essay on the Creative Imagination, Essai sur l’imagination créatrice, see Ribot.
“Eternal Life” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Evening” (poem), See Duo Duo.
“Evening of Confucius Graveyard Woods” (poem), see Han Dong.
“Every Day is a New Day” (poem), see Yang Lian.
“Everything” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Excavation and Illumination” (essay), see Chen Chao.
Existentialist Aesthetic, see Tomonobu.
“Expectation” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
Explorations of Poetry (poetic journal), see Shi tansuo.
“Expressive Lyrics” (10 poems), see Gu Cheng.
Eye of the Sky (collection of poems), see Tianmu.

Fabre, Jean-Henri Casimir. Souvenirs entomologiques: Études sur l'instinct et les mœurs des insectes [Entomological Memories: Studies on the Instinct and Habits of insects]. 10 vols. Paris: Delagravem 1879–1907 [cf. Stawell 1917; Wang Dawen 1933].
“Fairytale Poet – For G.G” (poem), see 1. Gu Cheng; 2. Shu Ting.
Fang Han 方含 [Sun Kang 孙康]. “Yaoqu” 谣曲 [Ballads] (poem).
Fang Ping 方平 and Wang Keyi 王科一 (trs.). Shiri tan 十日谈 [Decamerone], by Bujiaqiu卜伽丘 [Boccaccio]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1958 [Chinese translation of Boccacio’s Decamerone].
Fang Xiaoguang 方晓光 (tr.). Yidian yuan zhi men: liushi niandai Meiguo wenhua 伊甸园之门—六十年代美国文化 [Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties], by Dikesitan 迪克斯坦 [Dickstein, Morris]. Shanghai: Shanghai waiyu jiaoyu 1986, 186.
“Fantasia of Life” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Far and Near” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
Faulkner, Peter. Modernism. London: Methuen, 1977 [cf. Zou Yu 1988].
Feifei 非非 [No-No] (literary journal).
“Feifei diyibu” 非非第一步) “First Move of No-No”), column in Feifei 1 (1986).
“Feifei fengdu” 非非风度 (“No-No Manner”), column in Feifei 1 (1986).
Feifei pinglun 非非评论 [No-No Commentary] (literary journal).
Feifei zuopin ziliaoji 非非作品资料集 [Collection of No-No Works] (literary journal).
Feitian 飞天 (Flying Fairies), a literary journal in Gansu Province.
Feng Chuan 冯川 and Su Ke 苏克 (trs.). Xinlixue yu wenxue 心理学与文学 [Psychology and Literature], by Rongle 荣格 [Jung, C. G.]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1987 [Chinese translation of Jung 1952].
Feng Nanjiang 冯南江 and Qin Shunxin 秦顺新. Ren, suiyue, shenghuo 人, 岁月, 生活 [Men, Years, Life], by Ailunbao 爱伦堡 [Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigoryevich]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1962–1964 [Chinese translation of Ehrenburg 1961–1964].
“Fire Thief and Female Demon” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
“First Move of No-No”, see “Feifei diyibu”.
„Fish Trilogy “ (poem cycle), See Shi Zhi.
“Flaming Heart” (long poem), see Zhang Langlang.
Flint, Frank Stuart. “Imagisme”, Poetry; A Magazine of Verse 1.6 (March 1913), 198-200.
Flower City, see Huacheng.
“Fluctuation” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Flying Fairies” (poem in the Dunhuang series), see Yang Lian.
Flying Fairies (literary jounal), see Feitian.
Fokkema, Douwe Wessel and Bertens, Johannes Willem (eds.). Approaching Postmodernism: Papers Presented at a Workshop on Postmodernism, 21–23 September 1984, University of Utrecht. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1986 [cf. Wang Ning 1991].
“For My Generation” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“For My Respectable Teacher Andersen” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Forever Young” (poem), see Dylan.
“Four Mythical Heroes and One Mute Woman” (poem), see Wang Chuanping.
“Free Blocks” (poem), see Zhou Lunyou.
Fudan shishe 复旦诗社. Hai xingxing: daxuesheng shuqingshi ji 海星星—大学生抒情诗集 [Sea Stars: College Student Lyric Poems]. Shanghai: Fudan daxue, 1983.
Fujian wenxue 福建文学 [Fujian Literature] (periodical), published in Fuzhou.
——— (eds.). “Guanyu xinshi chuangzuo wenti de taolun” 关于新诗创作问题的讨论 [Discussion of the Creation of New Poetry], column in Fujian wenxue 1980.
Fujian wenyi 福建文艺 [Fujian Literature and Art] (periodical), published in Fuzhou.
“Funeral” (poem), see Jiang He.
Furst, Lilian R. Romanticism. London: Methuen, 1969 [cf. Li Jin 1989].

Gan Yang 甘阳 (tr.). Ren lun人论 [An essay on man], by Kaxi’er 卡西尔 [Cassirer, Ernst]. Shanghai: Shanghai yiwen, 1985 [Chinese translation of Cassirer 1944].
Gao Bingzhong 高丙中 (tr.) Lun yinyu 论隐喻 [Metaphor], by Huokesi 霍克斯 [Hawkes, Terence]. Beijing: Kunlun, 1992 [Chinese translation of Hawkes 1972].
Gao Falin 高伐林 et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 47-49.
Gao Mingkai 高名凯 (tr.). Putong yuyanxue jiaocheng 普通语言学教程 [Course in General Linguistics], by Suoxu’er 索绪尔 [Saussure, Ferdinand de]. Beijing: Shangwu, 1980.
Gao Yubao 高玉宝. Banye jijiao 半夜鸡叫 [The Cock Crows at Midnight ]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1958.
Garaudy, Roger. Perspectives de l’homme: existentialisme, pensée catholique, structuralisme, marxisme [Perspectives of Man: Existentialism, Catholic Thinking, Structuralism, and Marxism]. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1959 [cf. Xu Maoyong 1965].
“Garden of ‘College Student’ Poetry”, see “Daxuesheng shiyuan”.
Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties, see Dickstein.
Ge Xiaoli 戈小丽. “Guo Lusheng zai Xinghuacun” 郭路生在杏花村 [Guo Lusheng in Xinghua Village] (essay), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 61-70.
Gen Zi 根子 [Yue Chong 岳重]. “Baiyangdian” 白洋淀 [Baiyangdian] (poem, written 1969).
———. “Jiehongse de wu” 桔红色的雾 [Orange Colored Fog] (poem, written 1969).
———. “Shenyuanshang de qiao” 深渊上的桥 [Bridge over the Abyss] (poem, written 1969).
———. “Sanyue yu mori” 三月与末日 [March and Doom’s Day] (poem, first published 1971), in: Kaituo wenxue, 1988.3, 159-161.
Ghiselin, Brewster (ed.). The Creative Process: A Symposium. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1952.
“Gift” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Gilbert, Stuart (tr.). The Stranger, by Camus, Albert. New York: Knopf, 1946.
Ginkgo (literary magazine), see Yinxing.
Ginsberg, Allen. Howl and Other Poems. San Francisco: City Lights Book, 1956.
———. “Howl” (poem, written 1955), in: Ginsberg 1956.
“Give Innovators of Art Freer Air” (essay), see Sun Shaozhen.
“Glass Lunch”, see “Boli wucan”.
“Goddess of Lhasa River” (poem), see Ma Yuan.
“Goddess Peak” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Goicoechea, David L., Luik, John C., and Madigan, Tim. The Question of Humanism: Challenges and Possibilities. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1990 [cf. Du Liyan 1997].
“Going through This Mysterious Land” (poem), see Liao Yiwu.
Gong Liu 公刘. “Xinde keti: Cong Gu Cheng tongzhi de jishoushi tanqi” 新的课题—从顾城同志的几首诗谈起 [A New Project: On a Few Poems of Gu Cheng], Wenyi bao文艺报 1979.1, 38-41.
“Goodbye, Shu Ting and Bei Dao”, see Cheng Weidong.
“Grand Circulation” (poem), See Liao Yiwu.
“Grand Exhibition of Modern Poetic Groups on China’s Poetry Scene, 1986” (collection of poems), see Xu Jingya et al.
Grand View of Chinese Modernist Poetic Groups: 1986–1988, see Xu Jingya et al.
Graves, Robert. “To Juan at the Winter Solstice” (poem, written 1944),
“Great Masters” (poem), see Liao Yiwu.
“Great Saying So” (poem), See Song Qu and Song Wei.
Gu Cheng 顾城 [Gu Cheng 古城]. Gu Cheng sanwen xuanji 顾城散文选集 [Selected Essays by Gu Cheng]. Tianjin: Baihua wenyi, 1993.
———. Gu Cheng shi quanbian 顾城诗全编 [Complete Collection of Gu Cheng’s Poems]. Beijing: Sanlian shudian, 1995.
———. Gu Cheng de shi 顾城的诗 [Gu Cheng’s Poems] Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1998.
———. “Ai wo ba, hai”爱我吧,海 [Love Me, Ocean] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 53.
———. “Dao huo zhe yu nu yao” 盗火者与女妖 [Fire Thief and Female Demon] (essay), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 107-113.
———. “Dengken” 邓肯 [Duncan] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1995, 836.
———. “Gei wode zunshi antusheng” 给我的尊师安徒生 [For My Respectable Teacher Andersen] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 45.
———. “Huxian” 弧线 [Arc] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 72.
———. “Jianjie de zizhuan” 剪接的自传 [Edited Autobiography] (essay, written 1983), in Lao Mu 1985, 41-45.
———. “Jieshu” 结束 [The End] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 37.
———. “Menglongshi’ wenda” “朦胧诗”问答 [Questions about Misty Poetry] (essay, written 1981), in Lao Mu 1985, 34-38.
———. “Paoying” 泡影 [Bubbles] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 71.
———. “Qidai” 期待 [Expectation] (poem).
———. “Qikai tianguo de men” 启开天国的门 [Open the Door to Paradise] (long poem), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 114-117.
———. “Shaonian shidai de yangguang” 少年时代的阳光 [Sunshine in Youth] (essay, written 1980), in Lao Mu 1985, 28.
———. “Shengming he shengming de fenfang” 生命和生命的芬芳 [Life and the Fragrance of Life] (essay), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 147-167.
———. “Shengming huangxiang qu” 生命幻想曲 [Fantasia of Life] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 16.
———. “Shuqingshi shishou” 抒情诗十首 [Expressive Lyrics] (10 poems), Xingxing shi kan 1982.1; also in Shu Ting and Gu Cheng 1982.
———. “Su shui” 溯水 [Swim Upstream] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 259.
———. “Wo shi yige renxing de haizi” 我是一个任性的孩子 [I am a Willful Kid] (poem).
———. “Wode huanxiang” 我的幻想 [My Fantasy] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 3.
———. “Wumingde xiaohua” 无名的小花 [Nameless Flowers] (set of poem, published 1979).
———. “Xiwang de xiaoshu” 希望的小树 [A Small Tree of Hope] (essay, written 1980), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 22-29.
———. “Xizhong gesheng” 西冢歌声 [A Song at Xizhong] (essay, written 1980), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 33-42.
———. “Yidai ren” 一代人 [One Generation] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 26.
———. “Yuan yu jin” 远与近 [Far and Near] (poem), in: Gu Cheng 1998, 70.
———. “Yongheng de shengming” 永恒的生命 [Eternal Life] (poem written 1971), in: Gu Cheng 1993, 8-9.
———. “Zha yan” 眨眼 [Blink] (poem).
———. “Zhaoliang suxing huo chenmo” 照亮苏醒或沉睡 [Illuminate the Awakening or the Silence], in: Gu Cheng 1993, 75-81.
———. “Zuimei de yongyuan shi mingtian” 最美的永远是明天 [The Most Beautiful Is Always Tomorrow], in: Gu Cheng 1993, 82-101.
——— et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 52-53; see also Lao Mu 1985, 2, 21, 23, 29, 34, 41, 55, 76, and 77.
“Gu Cheng and Poetry” (essay), see Gu Gong.
Gu Cheng’s Poems, see Gu Cheng.
Gu Gong 顾工. “Liangdairen: cong shi de ‘bu dong’ tan qi” 两代人—从诗的“不懂”谈起 [Two Generations: To Start from the “Ignorance” of Poetry] (essay), Shi kan 1980.10, 49-51.
———. “Gu Cheng he shi” 顾城和诗 [Gu Cheng and Poetry], in: Hong Ying and Zhao Yiheng 1993, 369.
“Gu Cheng’s Death”, see Tang Xiaodu.
Gu Jiong 顾炯. “Jing zhu Mao zhuxi wanshouwujiang ” 敬祝毛主席万寿无疆 [Wish Chairman Mao a Long Life] (poem), in: Iwasa Masanori and Liu Fuchun 2001, 69-70.
Guangming ribao 光明日报 [Guangming Daily] (newspaper), published in Beijing.
Guo Hong’an 郭宏安 (tr.). Bodelai‘er meixue lunwen xuan 波德莱尔美学论文选 [Collection of Baudelaire’s Essays on Aesthetics], by Bodelai’er 波德莱尔. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1987.
“Guo Lusheng in Xinghua Village” (essay), see Ge Xiaoli.

Habermas, Jürgen. Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne: zwölf Vorlesungen [The Philosophical Discurse of Modernity]. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1985 [cf. Lawrence 1987; Cao Weidong 2011].
Hai Zi 海子 [Cha Haisheng 查海生]. “Taiyang: qibu shu” 太阳·七部书 [The Sun: Seven Books] (poetic play, written 1986–1988).
“Hainan Sentiments” (poem), see Anon.
“Hamlet and His Problems” (essay), see Eliot.
Han Dong 韩东. Baise de shitou 白色的石头 [The White Stone], Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, Han Dong 1992.
———. “Hai he, Hai” 海呵, 海 [Sea, Oh Sea], alternative title of “Old Fisherman”.
———. “Konglin de yewan” 孔林的夜晚 [“Evening of Confucius Graveyard Woods”] (poem).
———. “Lao yufu” 老渔夫 [Old Fisherman] (poem, first published 1982).
———. “Mingyue jianglin” 明月降临 [The Bright Moon is Rising Sea] (poem), in: Han Dong 1992, 11.
———. “Ni jianguo dahai” 你见过大海 [You Saw the Sea] (poem), in: Han Dong 1992, 7.
———. “Nide shou” 你的手 [Your Hands] (poem).
———. “Qingchun shihua” 青春诗话 [Youth and Poetry] (essay), Shi kan 1986.11, 29-35.
———. “Sange shisu juese zhi hou” 三个世俗角色之后 [After Three Worldly Roles] (essay), Bai jia 百家 1989.4, 50.
———. “Shan” 山 [Mountains] (poem).
———. “Shanmin” 山民 [Mountain People] (poem, first published 1982).
———. “Tamen lueshuo”《他们》略说 [A Brief Note on Others] (essay), Shi tansuo 1994.1, 159-162.
———. “Wo ting jian beizi” 我听见杯子 [I Hear Cups] (poem).
———. “Women zhe yidai” 我们这一代 [Our Generation] (column in Tamen).
———. “Xiaqi de nanren” 下棋的男人 [Men Playing Chess] (poem).
———. “Youguan dayan ta” 有关大雁塔 [About Big Wild Goose Pagoda] (poem), Shi kan 2000.8, 58.
———. “Zizhuan yu shi jian” 自传与诗见 [Biography and Views on Poetry] (essay), Shige bao 1988-7-6.
——— and Zhu Wen 朱文. “Guzha bitan” 古闸笔谈 [Conversation by Writing at Ancient Dam] (essay). Zuojia 1993.4, 71.
“Hanging Coffins” (poem), see Ouyang Jianghe.
“Happy Women Lathe Operators” (poem), see Yi Dian.
Harari, Manya (tr.). The Thaw, by Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigoryevich. Chicago: Regnery, 1955 [English translation of Ehrenburg 1963].
Hauer, Erwin [Hao 豪] (au.) and Liu Changying 刘长缨 (tr.). “Xiandai zhuyi de gainian” 现代主义的概念 [The Concept of Modernism], in: Yuan Kejia 1989, 168-202.
“Having Nothing”, see Cui Jian.
Hawkes, Terence. Metaphor. London: Routledge, 1972 [cf. Gao Bingzhong 1992].
He Lin 贺麟 (tr.). Zhexueshi jiangyan lu 哲学史讲演录 [Lectures on the History of Philosophy], by Heige’er 黑格尔 [Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich]. 4 vols. Beijing: shangwu, 1978 [Chinese translation of Hegel 1833–1836].
He Xin 何新. Zhushen de qiyuan 诸神的起源 [The Origin of Gods]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1986.
Head Teacher, see Liu Xinwu.
Heading South, see Aiwu.
Heart Smoke (collection of poems), see Shu Ting.
“Heavy Rain” (poem), see Yang Li.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik [Lectures on Aesthetics], ed. by Heinrich Gustav Hotho. 3 vols. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, 1835–1838 [cf. Knox 1978; Zhu Guangqian 1982].
———. Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie [Lectures on the History of Philosophy], ed. by Karl Ludwig Michelet. 3 vols. Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, 1833–1836 [cf. Sibree 1857; He Lin 1978].
Heidegger, Martin. Sein und Zeit [Being and Time]. Halle: Niemeyer, 1927 [cf. Harper 1962; Chen Jiaying 1987].
———. Unterwegs zur Sprache. Pfullingen, Neske, 1959 [cf. Hertz 1959].
———. “Wozu Dichter?” [What are poets for?] (essay, written 1946), English translation in Hofstadter 1971, 87-139.
———. “Hölderlin und das Wesen der Dichtung” [Hölderlin and the Essence of Poetry] (essay, written 1936).
———. “Hölderlins Hymne ‚Der Ister‘” [Hölderlin's Hymn “The Ister”] (essay, written 1942).
———. “Über den Humanismus” [Letter on Humanism] (essay, written 1946).
Henderson, Alice Corbin. “Imagism: Secular and Esoteric”, Poetry; A Magazine of Verse 11.6 (March 1918), 339-343.
“Her Poetry, Please Read in Silence” (essay), see Xu Jingya.
“Hero and Ruffian” (essay), see Li Yawei.
Hertz-Ohmes, Peter D. (tr.). On the Way to Language. New York: Harper & Row, 1959.
“High Up” (poem) by Yang Li.
“His Stubbornness, His Passion: Understanding Liao Yiwu” (essay), see Ba Tie.
History of Chinese Modern Thoughts, see Li Zehou.
History of the Literature of Chinese Educated Youth, see Yang Jian.
History of Western Literary Theories, see Ma Xinguo.
“Hölderlin and the Essence of Poetry” / “Hölderlin und das Wesen der Dichtung” (essay), see Heidegger.
“Hölderlin's Hymn ‘The Ister’” / “Hölderlins Hymne ‚Der Ister‘” (essay), see Heidegger.
Hofstadter, Albert (tr.). Poetry, Language, Thought, by Heidegger, Martin. New York: Harper & Row, 1971 [cf. Peng Fuchun and Dai Hui 1991].
Hometown (periodical), see Laojia.
“Honey Week” (poem), see Duo Duo.
Hong Ying 虹影 and Zhao Yiheng 赵毅衡 (eds.). Mu chuang: Gu Cheng, Xie Ye haiwai daibiao zuopin ji 墓床—顾城, 谢烨海外代表作品集. [Tomb Bed: Representative Collection of Gu Cheng’s and Xie Ye’s Overseas Works]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1993.
Hong Zicheng 洪子诚. Dangdai wenxue guanjianci 当代文学关键词 [Key Words of Modern Literature]. Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue, 2002.
———. Yangguang dazai dishang: Beida dangdai shi xuan 1978–2018 阳光打在地上—北大当代诗选 1978–2018 [Sunshine on the Ground: Contemporary Poetry of Peking University 1978–2018]. Beijing: Beijing daxue, 2018.
———.“Sange yiyang de beizi” 三个一样的杯子 [Three Glasses That Are the Same] (poem), in: Hong Zicheng 2018, 120.
“Howl” (poem), see Ginsberg.
Hu Dong 胡冬. “Wo xiang cheng yisou manchuan dao Bali qu” 我想乘一艘慢船到巴黎去 [I Want to Take a Slow Boat to Paris] (poem).
Huacheng 花城 [Flower City] (literary magazine), published since 1979 in Guangzhou.
Huang Xiang 黄翔. “Du chang” 独唱 [Solo], in: Xie Mian and Qian Liqun 1996, 439.
Huang Yusheng 黄裕生. Shijian yu yongheng: lun Haidege’er zhexue zhong de shijian wenti 时间与永恒—论海德格尔哲学中的时间问题 [Time and Eternity: On the Time Issue in Heidegger's Philosophy]. Beijing: Shehuikexue wenxian, 1997.
Huang Yushi 黄雨石, Shi Xianrong 施咸荣, Wen Huiru 李文俊, Liu Huiqin 刘慧琴 (tr.), Zai lushang 在路上, by Keruyake 克茹亚克 [Kerouac, Jack]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1962.
Huiyinbi 回音壁 [Echo Wall] (mimeographed poetic publication).
“Humans, Understand Me” (essay), see Shu Ting.

“I am a Willful Kid” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“I am Proud, I am a Tree” (poem), see Li Ying.
“I Have Washed My Clothes Clean” (poem), see Cao Hanjun.
“I Hear Cups” (poem), see Han Dong.
“I Love” (long poem), see Mayakovsky.
“I Love My Lover” (poem), see Pang Shan.
“I Want to Take a Slow Boat to Paris” (poem), see Hu Dong.
“I Will Be in This Way” (poem), see Xiao Jun.
“Illuminate the Awakening or the Silence” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
“Imagism: Secular and Esoteric” (essay), see Henderson.
“Imagisme” (essay), see Flint,
Imagist Poetry (collection of poems), see Jones.
“Impressions of Mang Ke”, see Lin Mang.
“In a Station of the Metro” (poem), see Ezra Pound.
“In Defense of Vernacular Poetry” (essay), see Shang Zhongmin.
“In Front of the New Rise” (essay), see Xie Mian.
In Search of Yourself: Personality and Its Self-Awareness, see Kon.
Inherent Eyes: Papers on Modern Poetic, see Sun Jilin.
“Intelligent Space” (essay), see Yang Lian.
“Introduction to Anthology of Poems”, see Zhu Ziqing.
Introduction to Modernist Literary Theories in Europe and America, see Yuan Kejia.
“Introduction to Pre-culture” (essay), see Lan Ma.
“Irony as a Principle of Structure”, see Brooks.
“Island” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“It Starts Here” (poem), see Jiang He.
It Starts Here (collection of poems), see Jiang He.
Iwasa Masanori 岩佐昌暲 and Liu Fuchun 刘福春 (eds). Kō eihei shisen [chin. Hongweibing shi xuan] 红卫兵诗选 [Poems of Red Guards], Fukuoka: Chūgoku, 2001.

Jameson, Fredric [Jiemuxun 杰姆逊] (au.) and Tang Xiaobing 唐小兵 (tr.). Houxiandai zhuyi yu wenhua lilun 后现代主义与文化理论 [Postmodernism and Cultural Theories]. Xi’an: Shaanxi shifan daxue, 1987.
Jefferson, Ann Margaret, and Robey, David (eds.). Modern Literary Theory: A Comparative Introduction. London: Batsford, 1982 [cf. Chen Zhaoquan 1986].
Jiang He 江河. Cong zheli kaishi 从这里开始 [It Starts Here] (collection of poems). Guang­zhou: Huacheng, 1986
———. Taiyang he tade fanguang 太阳和他的反光 [The Sun and his Reflections] (collection of poems). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1987.
———. “Chensi” 沉思 [Deep Thoughts] (poem).
———. “Cong zheli kaishi” 从这里开始 [It Starts Here], in: Jiang He 1986, 33.
———. “Jinianbei” 纪念碑 [Monument] (poem), in: Jiang He 1986, 2; Shi kan 2000.8, 51.
———. “Kumen” 苦闷 [Depression] (poem).
———. “Qingchun” 青春 [Youth] (poem).
———. “Rang women yikuai’er zou ba” 让我们一块儿走吧 [Let’s Go Together] (poem), in: Jiang He 1986, 43.
———. “Rang women yiqi benteng ba: xian gei biangezhe de ge, qianyan” 让我们一起奔腾吧—献给变革者的歌·前言 [Let Us Rush Together: A Song for Innovators, Preface] (essay), Shanghai wenxue 1981.3, 56-57.
———. “Shangxin de ge” 伤心的歌 [Sad Song] (poem).
———. “Taiyang he tade fanguang” 太阳和他的反光 [The Sun and his Reflections] (poem series with preface), in: Lao Mu 1985, 22-28.
———. “Yizhu” 遗嘱 [A Will] (poem).
———. “Zang li” 葬礼 [Funeral] (poem).
———. “Zhui ri” 追日 [Running after the Sun] (poem), in: Jiang He 1987, 9.
———. “Zuguo a, zuguo” 祖国啊,祖国 [Motherland, oh Dear Motherland] (poem), in: Jiang He 1986, 15.
——— et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 57-59.
Jintian 今天 [Today], literary journal, 1978–1980 edited by Mang Ke 芒克 et al. and published in Beijing, revived 1990 by Bei Dao 北岛 and published published outside the PRC.
“Jive” (poem), see Zhang Wei.
Jones, Peter Austin. Imagist Poetry. London: Penguin, 1972 [cf. Qiongsi 1986].
Journal of College Student Poetry (poetic journal), see Daxuesheng shibao 大学生诗报.
“Journey” (poem), see Yang Li.
Jung, C. G. “Psychology and Literature” (essay), in: Ghiselin 1952, 217-232.

Kant, Immanuel. “Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?” [Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?] (essay), Berlinische Monatsschrift 1784.2, 481-494 [bilingual edn. https://bdfwia.github.io/ bdfwia.html].
Karl, Frederick Robert. Modern and Modernism: The Sovereignty of the Artist 1885–1925. New York: Atheneum, 1985 [cf. Chen Yongguo and Fu Jingchuan 1995].
Kerouac, Jack. On the Road. New York: Viking, 1957 [cf. Huang Yushi et al. 1962].
Key Words of Modern Literature, see Hong Zicheng.
Ke Yan 柯岩. “Guanyu shide duihua” 关于诗的对话 [Dialogue about Poetry] (essay), Shi kan 1983.12, 54.
Knox, Thomas Malcolm (tr.). Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, by Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975 [English translation of Hegel 1835–1838].
Kochetov, Vsevolod Anissimovich Кочетов, Всеволод Анисимович. Chego zhe ty khochesh’? Чего же ты хочешь? [What Is It You Want?]. London: Flegon, 1968 [cf. Shanghai xinwen … 1972].
Kon, Igor Semenovich Кон, Игорь Семенович. V poiskakh sebya: lichnost’ i yeye samosoznaniye В поисках себя: личность и ее самосознание [In Search of Yourself: Personality and Its Self-Awareness]. Moskva: Politizdat, 1984 [cf. Tong Jinghan 1986].

Lamartine, Alphonse de. “Le lac” [The Lake] (poem published 1820).
Lan Ma 蓝马 [Wang Shigang 王世刚]. “Feifei zhuyi xuanyan” 非非主义宣言 [Declaration of No-Noism] (essay), Feifei 1 (1986), 1-2.
———. “Feifei zhuyi erhao xuanyan” 非非主义第二号宣言 [Second Declaration of No-Noism], Feifei非非 1989, 4-17.
———. “Qian wenhua dao yan” 前文化导言 [Introduction to Pre-Culture], Feifei 1 (1986), 60-65.
———. “Jiuyue de qingxu” 九月的情绪 [The Mood of September] (poem), by Lan Ma.
———. “De men” 的门 [’s Door] (poem).
———. “Shi de jie” 世的界 [Wor’sld] (long poem, written 1988).
———. “Yuyan geming: chao wenhua” 语言革命—超文化 [Linguistic Revolution: Extra-Culture] (essay). Bai jia 1988.2, 6-9.
———. “Zou xiang mishi: xianfeng shige yundong de fanxing” 走向迷失—先锋诗歌运动的反省 [Walking to Confusion: Reflections on Avant-garde Poetic Sctivities] (essay). Zuojia 1990.10, 73-75.
Langer, Susanne K. (tr.). Language and Myth, by Cassirer, Ernst. New York: Dover, 1945 [English translation of Casirer 1925].
Langmen 狼们 [Wolves] (mimeographed poetry publication).
Language and Myth, see Cassirer
Language and Philosophy: A Comparative Study of Contemporary Anglo-American and German-French Traditions, see Xu Youyu.
“Languages” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Lao Mu 老木. Qingnian shiren tan shi: jiaoxue cankao ziliao 青年诗人谈诗—教学参考资料 [Young Poets on Poetry: Comparative Materials on Pedagogy]. Beijing: Beijingdaxue Wusi wenxue she, 1985.
Laojia 老家 [Hometown] (periodical, edited by Han Dong), published in Xi’an.
“Late Autumn” (poem), see Duo Duo.
Lawrence, Frederick G. (tr.). The Philosophical Discurse of Modernity, by Habermas, Jürgen. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1987 [English translation of Habermas 1985].
L’écriture et la difference, see Derrida.
L’Étranger, see Camus.
Le Figaro (newspaper), published in Paris.
Le Mythe de Sisyphe (essay), see Camus.
Lectures on Aesthetics, see Hegel.
Lectures on the History of Philosophy, see Hegel.
Leaves of Grass, see Whitman.
“Legend of the ‘Solar Brigade’ and Other Things” (essay), see Zhang Langlang.
Lenin Ленин [Ulyanov, Vladimir Ilyich Ульянов, Владимир Ильич]. Chto dѣlat': nabolѣvshíe voprosy nashego dvizheníya Что дѣлать: наболѣвшіе вопросы нашего движенія [What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement]. Stuttgart: Dietz, 1902 [cf. Zhonggong zhongyang … zhuzuo bianyiju 1960]
———. What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement. London: Lawrence, 1902 [English translation of Lenin 1902].
Les Fleurs du mal, see Baudelaire.
“Let Us Rush Together: A Song for Innovators, Preface” (essay), see Jiang He.
“Let’s Go” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Let’s Go Together” (poem), see Jiang He.
“Letter on Humanism” (essay), see Heidegger.
Li 犁 [Plough] (mimeographed poetic publication).
Li Guonan 李国南. Cige yu cihui 辞格与词汇 [Case and Lexicon]. Shanghai: Shanghai waiyu jiaoyu, 2001.
Li Hengjiu 李恒久. “Lusheng yu wo” 路生与我 [Lusheng and Me], in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 80-84.
Li Jin 李今 (tr.). Langman zhuyi 浪漫主义 [Romanticism], by Fusite 弗斯特 [Furst, Lilian R.]. Beijing: Kunlun, 1989.
Li Xiaobing 李小兵 (tr.). Shenmei zhi wei: Ma’erkusai meixue lunzhu ji 审美之维—马尔库塞美学论著集 [The Aesthetic Dimension: A Collection of Marcuse’s Aesthetics] by Ma’erkusai 马尔库塞 [Marcuse, Herbert]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1989 [Chinese translation of Marcuse 1977].
Li Yawei 李亚伟. “Liulang tuzhong de ‘manghan zhuyi’” 流浪途中的“莽汉主义” [“Boorishism” in Vagrancy], Chuang shiji 创世纪, 1993.1, 35-36.
———. “Yinghanmen” 硬汉们 [Tough Guys] (poem, written 1984).
———. “Yingxiong yu popi” 英雄与泼皮 [Hero and Ruffian] (essay), Shi tansuo 1996.2, 128-135.
———. “Zhongwen xi” 中文系 [The Department of Chinese] (poem, written 1984), in: Niu Han 2000, 146.
Li Yeping 李掖平. “Jueqi yu xuanxiao duhou”《崛起与喧嚣》读后 (A Review of Rise and Noise), http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5b1b0c020100c2ho.html.
Li Ying 李瑛. “Wo jiao’ao, wo shi yike shu” 我骄傲,我是一棵树 [I am Proud, I am a Tree] (poem), in: Xu Jingya 1989, 247.
Li Youcheng 李幼蒸 and Xu Yichun 徐奕春 (trs.). Zhexue zhuyao quxiang 哲学主要趋嚮 [Main Trends in Philosophy] by Like 利科 [Ricœur, Paul]. Beijing: Shangwu, 1988 [Chinese translation of Ricœur 1978].
Li Zehou 李泽厚. Zhonguo xiandai sixiangshi lun 中国现代思想史论 [History of Chinese Modern Thoughts]. Beijing: Dongfang, 1987.
Li Zhengguang 黎正光. “Michuan” 迷川 [Mysterious Rivers] (poem).
Li Zhengtang 李正堂. “Xianfeng shi chao yanjiu de zhengui duben” 先锋诗潮研究的珍贵读本 (A Precious Piece of Avant-Garde Poetry Research), http://www.gmw.cn/01gmrb/2006-01/09/content_357922.htm.
Liang Xiaobin 梁小斌. “Xuebai de qiang” 雪白的墙 [Snow-White Wall] (poem), Shi kan 1980.10, 3-4.
———. “Wode kanfa” 我的看法 [My Views], Fujian wenyi 1981.1, 66-67.
———. “Shiren de bengkui” 诗人的崩溃 [The Breakdown of Poets] (essay), in: Xu Jingya et al. 1986.
———. “Zhongguo, wode xiaoshi diule” 中国,我的钥匙丢了 [China, My Key is Lost] (poem), Shi kan 2000.8, 48.
——— et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 55-56.
Liang Zongdai 梁宗岱. Shi yu zhen 诗与真 [Poetry and Truth]. Shanghai: Shangwu, 1935.
———. “Xiangzheng zhuyi” 象征主义 [Symbolism], in: Liang Zongdai 1935, 75-105.
Liao Yiwu 廖亦武 (ed.). Chenlun de shengdian: Zhongguo 20 shiji 70 niandai dixia shige yizhao 沉沦的圣殿—中国20世纪70年代地下诗歌遗照 [Sunken Sanctuary: A Phantome Picture of the Underground Poetry of the Seventies of the 20th Century]. Urumuqi: Xinjiang qingshaonian, 1999.
———. “Da xunhuan” 大循环 [Grand Circulation] (poem, written 1985).
———. “Guisu” 归宿 [End-Result] (poem, written 1984).
———. “Ju jiang” 巨匠 [Great Masters] (poem).
———. (“Xianzhi sanbuqu” 先知三部曲 [Prophet Trilogy] (series of poems with 1. “Sicheng” 死城, 2. “Huangcheng” 黄城, 3. “Huancheng” 幻城).
———. “Yueguo zhe pian shenqi de dadi” 越过这片神奇的大地 [Going through This Mysterious Land] (poem, first published 1985).
———. “Shoucangle yige shidai de ren: Zhao Yifan” 收藏了一个时代的人—赵一凡 [The Collector of an Age: Zhao Yifan] (chapter 3 of Chenlun de shengdian), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 125-182.
———. “Jintian de chuangkan he huangjin shiqi”《今天》的创刊和黄金时期 [The Launch of Today and Its Golden Age] (chapter 5 of Chenlun de shengdian), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 317-410.
“Life and the Fragrance of Life” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
“Life, Books, and Poetry” (essay), see Shu Ting.
“Like a Rolling Stone”, see Dylan.
Lin Bo 林波 (tr.). Ren de zhexue: Makesi zhuyi yu cunzai zhuyi 人的哲学—马克思主义与存在主义 [A Philosophy of Man: Marxism and Existentialism], by Shafu 沙夫 [Schaff, Adam]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1963.
Lin Mang 林莽 [Zhang Jianzhong 张建中]. “Ershiliuge yinjiede hui­xiang” 二十六个音节的回响 [Reverberation of 26 Syllables] (poem).
———. “Mang Ke yinxiang” 芒克印象 [Impressions of Mang Ke] (essay), Shi tansuo 1995.3, 108-110.
——— and Liu Fuchun 刘福春 (eds.). Shi tansuo jinku: Shi Zhi juan 诗探索金库·食指卷 [Poetry Exploration Treasury: Shi Zhi’s Volume]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1998.
———. “Shi Zhi lun” 食指论 [On Shi Zhi] (essay), in: Lin Mang 1998, 2-3.
———. “Shi Zhi shengping duandai (1964–1979)” 食指生平断代 (1964–1979) [Biography of Shi Zhi from 1964 to 1979], in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 97-108.
———. “Bing wei bei maizang de shiren” 并未被埋葬的诗人 [The Poet Who Is not Buried] (essay) in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 109-129.
“Linguistic Revolution: Extra-Culture” (essay), see Lan Ma.
Literary Gazette (periodical), see Wenyi bao.
Literary Opinion in America, see Zabel.
Literary Review (periodical), see Wenxue pinglun.
Literary Theory, see Eagleton.
Literature Research Reference (periodical), see Wenxue yanjiu cankao.
“Little Town” (poem), see Yang Li.
Liu Denghan 刘登翰. “Yigu bukeezhi de xinshi chao: cong Shu Ting de chuangzuo he zhenglun shuo qi” 一股不可遏制的新诗潮—从舒婷的创作和争论说起 [An Uncontrollable New Poetry Wave: To Begin with Shu Ting’s Creation and Controversy], Fujian wenyi 1980.12, 60-65.
Liu Mingjiu 柳鸣九. Xin xiaoshuopai yanjiu 新小说派研究 [Studies on New Fictions Schools].Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1986.
Liu Xiangyu 刘象愚 (tr.). Wenxue lilun 文学理论 [Theory of Literature], by Weileke 韦勒克 [Wellek, Rene] and Wolun 沃伦 [Warren, Austin]. Wenxue lilun 文学理论. Beijing: Sanlian, 1984 [Chinese translation of Wellek and Warren 1942].
Liu Xinwu 刘心武. Ban zhuren 班主任 [Head Teacher]. Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian, 1979.
Liu Zaifu 刘再复. Liu Zaifu ji: Xunzhao yu huhuan 刘再复集—寻找与呼唤 [Collection of Liu Zaifu: Search and Call]. Harbin: Heilongjiang jiaoyu, 1988.
——— and Lin Gang 林岗. Chuantong yu Zhongguoren 传统与中国人 [Tradition and Chinese People]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1988.
———. “Lun wenxue de zhutixing” 论文学的主体性 [Essay on the Subjectivity of Literature], Wenxue pinglun 1985.5, 11-26, 1986.1, 3-20 [rpt. in: Liu Zaifu 1988, 72-127.
“Liu Shaoqi, Who the Hell do You Think You Are!” (poem), see Anon.
“Looking For Home”, see Shang Zhiying.
“Lost in the Wind” (poem), see Pu Min.
“Lost Way” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Love Me, Ocean” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
Lu Feikui 陆费逵 (ed.). Cihai 辞海 [Source of Words]. 2 vols. Shanghai: Zhonghua, 1936–1937.
Lu Xun 鲁迅 [Zhou Shuren 周树人]. Kuangren riji 狂人日记 [A Madman‘s Diary] (short story, published 1918).
———. A Q zhengzhuan 阿Q正传 [The True Story of Ah Q] (short story, first published 1921–1922).
Lunyu 论语 [Analects] (literary magazine), published 1932–1937 and 1946–1949 in Shanghai, mainly edited by Lin Yutang 林语堂.
Luo Yihe 骆一禾. “Shijie de xue” 世界的血 [Blood of the World] (poem).
“Lusheng and Me”, see Li Hengjiu.

Ma Yuan 马原. “Lasahe nüshen” 拉萨河女神 [Goddess of Lhasa River] (poem).
Ma Yuande 马元德 (tr.). Lixiang de chongtu: Xifang shehui zhong bianhua zhe de jiazhi guannian 理想的冲突—西方社会中变化着的价值观念 [Conflict of ideals: changing values in the Western society], by Binkelai 宾克莱 [Binkley, Luther John]. Beijing: shangwu, 1984 [Chinese translation of Binkley 1983].
Ma Xinguo 马新国. Xifang wenlun shi 西方文论史 [History of Western Literary Theories]. Beijing: Gaodeng jiaoyu, 2004.
MacAndrew, Andrew R. (tr.). A Ticket to the Stars, by Aksyonov, Vasily Pavlovich. New York: New American Library, 1963 [English translation of Aksyonov 1961].
Main Trends in Philosophy, see Ricœur.
Mang Ke 芒克 [Jiang Shiwei 姜世伟]. Xinshi 心事 [Sentiments]. Beijing: Jintian bianjibu, 1978.
———. Mang Ke shi xuan 芒克诗选 [Anthology of Mang Ke’s Poems]. Beijing: Zhongguo wenlian, 1989.
———. “Lushang de yueliang” 路上的月亮 [Moon on the Road] (poem, witten 1973), in: Mang Ke 1989, 18.
———. “Qiutian” 秋天 [Autumn] (poem, witten 1973), in: Mang Ke 1989, 12.
———. “Shiyuede xianshi” 十月的献诗 [Ode to October] (poem, witten 1973).
———. “Taiyang luo le” 太阳落了 [The Sun Goes Down] (poem, witten 1973), in: Mang Ke 1989, 20.
———. “Tiankong” 天空 [Sky] (poem, witten 1973), in: Mang Ke 1989, 9.
———. “Xinshi” 心事 [Sentiments] (poem).
“Mang Ke: A Man and His Poems”, see Tang Xiaodu.
“March and Doom’s Day” (poem), see Gen Zi.
Marcuse, Herbert. Die Permanenz der Kunst: Wider eine bestimmte Marxistische Aesthetik [The Permanence of Art: Against a Certain Marxist Aesthetic]. München: Hanser, 1977 [cf. Sherover-Marcuse 1978; Li Xiaobing 1989].
Marshall, Herbert (tr.). Yevtushenko Poems, by Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich. Oxford: Pergamon, 1966.
Mayakovsky, Vladimir Vladimirovich [Маякoвский, Владимир Владимирович / Mayakefusiji 马雅可夫斯基, short: Mashi 马氏]. “Oblako v shtanakh: tetraptikh” Облако в штанах: тетраптих [A Cloud in Pants: long poem in four parts]. St. Petrograd, 1915 [Chinese translation: “Chuan kuzi de yun” 穿裤子的云].
———. “Lyublyu” Люблю [I Love (long poem)]. Riga, 1922 [Chinese translation: “Wo ai” 我爱].
“Melody of Life” (poem), see Zhang Wei.
“Memories and Reflections” (cycle of 5 poems), see Duo Duo.
“Memories of Baiyangdian” (essay), see Song Haiquan.
“Memory of the Mulberry Garden” (poem), see Su Tong.
“Men Playing Chess” (poem), see Han Dong.
Men, Years, Life, see Ehrenburg.
Meng An 孟安 (tr.). Juwairen 局外人 [The Stranger], by Jiamiu 加缪 [Camus, Albert]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1961.
Metaphor, see Hawkes.
“Micro Storm”, see “Weixing fengbao”.
“Midday” (poem), see Yang Li.
“Midnight Celebrations” (poem in the Nuorilang series), see Yang Lian.
“Modern Aesthetics and Art that Are Turning to ‘Process’”, see Teng Shouyao.
Modern and Modernism, see Karl.
Modern European Language of Philosophy, see Tu Jiliang.
Modern Literary Theory, see Jefferson and Robey.
Modern Poetry Materials Intended for Internal Communication, see Wan Xia.
Modern Chinese Dictionary, see Shangwu yinshuguan cishu bianjibu.
Modernism, see Faulkner.
Modernist Literature and Art in the West, see Zhao Leshen.
“Monument” (poem), see Jiang He.
“Moon on the Road” (poem), see Mang Ke.
“Moonlight over a Pond” (poem), see Yu Jian.
Moréas, Jean. “Un manifeste littéraire” [A Literary Manifesto], Le Figaro 18.09.1886, 150-151.
“Motherland” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Motherland, oh Dear Motherland” (poem), see Jiang He.
Mou Dunbai 牟敦白. “X Shishe yu Guo Shiying zhi si” X诗社与郭世英之死 [The “X Society of Poets” and the Death of Guo Shiying] (essay), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 17-19.
“Mountain People” (poem), see Han Dong.
“Mountains” (poem), see Han Dong.
“My Declaration” (essay), see Yang Lian.
“My Fantasy” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Myth” (poem of the Banpo series), see Yang Lian.
“Mysterious Rivers” (poem), see Li Zhengguang.

“Nameless Flowers” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“Naming of a Crow” (poem), see Yu Jian.
“Nature, Humanism and Tragedy”, see Robbe-Grillet.
Nausea, see Sartre.
“New Aesthetic Rules are Rising” (essay), see Sun Shaozhen.
“New Criticism: A Unique Formalist Literary Theory”, see Zhao Yiheng.
New Poetry Tide, see Wu Kaijin, Geng Jianhua and Sun Jilin.
“New Leaves” (periodical), see Xinye.
New Observations (periodical), see Xin guancha.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm [Chin. Nicai 尼采].
“Night” (poem), see Anon.
“Nightfall: Dingjiatan Village” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Nightmare” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Niu Han 牛汉. Feng Zhong zhanli: shige juan 风中站立—诗歌卷 [Standing in the Wind: Poetry Scroll]. 3 vols. Beijing: Dazhong wenyi, 2000.
“No Title” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“No. 6 Shangyi Street” (poem), see Yu Jian.
No-No (journal), see Feifei.
No-No Commentary (journal), see Feifei pinglun.
“No-No Manner”, see “Feifei fengdu”.
Notes with a Brown Cover, see Yu Jian.
“Nuorilang” (poems), see Yang Lian.

O’Brien, Justin (tr.). The Myth of Sisy­phus, by Camus, Albert. New York Vintage, 1955 [English translation of Camus 1942].
“Ode to October” (poem), see Mang Ke.
Ode to the Oak (collection of poems), see Shu Ting.
“Ode to the Oak” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Oh, Mother” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Old Fisherman” (poem), see Han Dong.
On Chinese Contemporary Poetry, see Yang Kuanhan.
On Chinese Misty Poets see Chen Zhongyi.
“On Creative Imagination”, see Ribot.
“On Shi Zhi” (essay), see Lin Mang.
“On the Cross of Poetry” (poem), see Shu Ting.
On the Road, see Kerouac.
“On the Subjectivity of Literature” (essay), see Liu Zaifu.
On the Way to Language, see Heidegger.
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, see Solzhenitsyn.
“One Generation” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“One Generation’s Call” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Open the Door to Me, Oh”, see Burns.
“Open the Door to Paradise” (long poem), see Gu Cheng.
Open the Door to the Flesh: No-Noism from Theory to Work (collection of essays), see Zhou Lunyou.
“Orange Colored Fog” (poem), See Gen Zi.
Others (literary journal), see Tamen.
“Our Generation”, see Han Dong.
Ouyang Jianghe 欧阳江河. “Xuan guan” 悬棺 [Hanging Coffins] (poem).

Pang Shan 胖山. “Wo ai wode qingren” 我爱我的情人 [I Love My Lover], in: Xu Jingya et al. 1988, 179-180.
“Panorama” (cycle of 14 poems), see Duo Duo.
Parker, Ralph (tr.). One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, by Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich. New York: New American Library, 1963 [English translation of Solzhenitsyn 1963].
Payne, John (tr.). The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio. London: Villon Society, 1886 [English translation of Boccaccio’s Decamerone].
“Pearl Shells: Tears of the Sea” (10 poems), see Shu Ting.
People’s Literature (periodical), see Renmin wenxue.
People’s Daily (newspaper), see Renmin ribao.
Perrine, Laurence. Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963 [cf. Yin Baoshu 1985].
Perspectives de l’homme, Perspectives of Man, see Garaudy.
Phaedrus, see Plato.
Plato (428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC). Phaedrus (essay).
“Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets” (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al.
Plough (poetic magazine), see Li.
Poem Collection of Federico Garcia Lorca, see Dai Wangshu.
Poems of Red Guards (collection of poems), see Iwasa Masanori.
“Poetic Methods of No-Noism” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou and Lan Ma.
Poetry and Truth, see Liang Zongdai.
Poetry Collection by Poets of Southern China (unfinished book project), see Yang Li.
Poetry Exploration Treasury: Shi Zhi’s Volume, see Lin Mang and Liu Fuchun.
Poetry Forest (poetic journal), see Shi lin.
Poetry, Language, Thought, see Heidegger.
Poetry Periodical (poetic journal), see Shi kan.
Poetry Press (poetic journal), see Shige bao.
“Poetry Read to Mothers” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Poetry towards Philosophy, see Wu Sijing.
Poetry Waves (poetic journal), see Shi chao.
“Poetry World Today: An Assessment of the Current Situation”, see Shang Zhongmin.
Poolside (collection of poems), see Chipan.
Postmodernism and Cultural Theories, see Jameson.
Postmodernist Culture and Aesthetics, see Wang Yuechuan.
“Postmodernist Poetic Character”, see Wang Yuechuan.
Pound, Ezra. “A Few Don’ts by an Imagiste” (essay), Poetry; A Magazine of Verse 1.6 (March 1913), 200-206.
———. “In a Station of the Metro” (poem), Poetry 2.1(April 2013), 12.
“Preface to ‘Three Poems’” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Prophet Trilogy” (series of poem), see Liao Yiwu.
“Psychology and Literature” (essay), see Jung.
Pu Min 普珉. “Sangshi yu feng” 丧失于风 [Lost in the Wind] (poem), Tamen 3 (1986), 30-31.
Pugongying 蒲公英 [Dandelion] (journal).
Pusey, Edward Bouverie (tr.). The Confessions of St. Augustine. London: Dent and Sons, 1907 [English translation of Augustinus].
“Puzzling ‘Misty’” (essay), see Zhang Ming.

Qian Cheng 钱诚 (tr.). Jiedong 解冻 [The Thaw], by Ailunbao 爱伦堡 [Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigoryevich]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1963 [Chinese translation of Ehrenburg 1962].
Qian Zhongshu 钱钟书. Tonggan 通感 [Synaesthesia] (essay), Wenxue pinglun 1962.1, 13-17.
Qingchun 青春 [Youth] (magazine), published in Nanjing.
“Youth”, see Jiang He.
Qingnian shiren 青年诗人 [Young Poets] (poetic journal), published in Changchun.
Qiu Xiaolong 裘小龙 (tr.). Yixiangpai shi xuan 意象派诗选 [Imagist Poetry], by Qiongsi 琼斯 [Jones, Peter Austin]. Guilin: Lijiang, 1986 [Chinese translation of Jones 1972].
“Questions about ‘Misty Poetry’” (essay), see Gu Cheng.

Rainbow (wall-newspaper), see Caihong.
“Raining Night” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Reading Notes of Sun City” (poem series), see Bei Dao.
“Record” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Record in the Rain” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Records about Insects, see Fabre.
“Red all over the River” (poem), see Anon.
“Red Sail Boat” (poem) by Bei Dao.
“Red Tile” (poem), see Wan Xia.
“Red Writing” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou.
“Reflections of ‘The Sun and His Reflections’” (cycle of poems), see Xiao Chi.
Reflections on Poetics, see Wu Sijing.
“Rejuvenated Muse” (essay), see Xu Jingya.
Renmin ribao 人民日报 [People’s Daily] (newspaper), published in Beijing.
Renmin wenxue 人民文学 [People’s Literature] (periodical), published since 1949 in Beijing.
Research on Modern Chinese Misty Poetry, see Zou Yu.
Research on Modernist Literature, see Yuan Kejia.
“Reverberation of 26 Syllables” (poem), see Lin Mang.
Review of Western Literary Essays in the 20th Century, see Zhang Longxi.
Ribot, Théodule Armand. Essai sur l’imagination créatrice. Paris: Alcan, 1900 [cf. Baron 1906; Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan waiguo wenxue yanjiusuo 1979].
Ricœur, Paul. Main Trends in Philosophy. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978 [cf. Li Youcheng and Xu Yichun 1988].
Rilke, Rai­ner Maria. “Der Panther” [The Panther] (poem, written 1902 or 1903).
Rise and Noise, see Sun Jilin.
Rising Poetic Groups (collection of poems and essays), see 1. Bi Hua and Yang Ling; 2. Xu Jingya.
“Rising Poetic Groups” (essay), see Xu Jingya.
Rivers in Amsterdam (collection of poems), see Duo Duo.
Robbe-Grillet, Alain. „Nature, humanisme et tragédie“ [Nature, Humanism and Tragedy], La Nouvelle Revue Française 70.6 (1958), 580-604 [cf. Liu Mingjiu 1986, 66-69].
Romanticism, see Furst.
“Running after the Sun” (poem), see Jiang He.
Ruo Zi 若子. “Liubing, tiaowu, changge” 溜冰、跳舞、唱歌 [Ski, Dance, Sing] (poem).

“’s Door” (poem), see Lan Ma.
“Sacrifices” (poem of the Banpo series), see Yang Lian.
“Sacrificial Dance Praying for Rain” (poem), see Wang Chuanping.
“Sad Song” (poem), see Jiang He.
Sajiao 撒娇 [Coquetry] (literary magazine).
Salinger, Jerome David. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1951 [cf. Shi Xianrong 1963].
Salute (collection of poems), see Duo Duo.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. La nausée [Nausea]. Paris: Callimard, 1938 [cf. Alexander 1938; Zheng Yonghui 1986].
“Sajiao xuanyan” 撒娇宣言 [Coquetry Declaration], in: Xu Jingya et al. 1988, 175.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. Cours de linguistique générale [Course in General Linguistics] ed. by Bally, Charles and Sechehaye, Albert; Paris: Payot, 1916 [cf. Baskin 1959; Gao Mingkai 1980].
Schaff, Adam. Filozofia człowieka: Marksizm a egzystencjalizm [A Philosophy of Man: Marxism and Existentialism]. Warszawa, 1961 [cf. Schaff 1963; Lin Bo 1963].
———. A Philosophy of Man: Essays. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1963 [English translation of Schaff 1961].
Scholes, Robert E. Semiotics and Interpretation. New Haven Yale University, 1982 [cf. Tan Dali and Gong Jianming 1988].
Sea Stars (anthology of poems), see Fudan shishe.
„Sea Trilogy “ (poem cycle), see Shi Zhi.
“Sea, Oh Sea” (poem), see Han Dong.
Search and Call, see Liu Zaifu.
“Second Declaration of No-Noism” (essay), see Lan Ma.
Sein und Zeit, see Heidegger.
Selected Essays by Gu Cheng, see Gu Cheng.
Selected Works of Wang Hui, see Wang Hui.
Semiotics and Interpretation / Semiotics and Literature, see Scholes.
Sentiments (anthology of poems), see Mang Ke.
“Sentiments” (poem), see Mang Ke.
Shang Zhongmin 尚仲敏. “Daxuesheng shipai xuanyan” 大学生诗派宣言 [Declaration of the ‘College Students’’ Poetry School] (essay), in: Xu Jingya et al. 1986 [1st. Collection].
———. “Dui xiancun shige shenmei guannian de huimiexing tupo” 对现存诗歌审美观念的毁灭性突破 [Destructive Breakthrough of Existent Poetic Aesthetic Notions], Daxuesheng xuebao 1985, 2.
———. “Wei kouyu shi bianhu” 为口语诗辩护 [In Defense of Vernacular Poetry] (essay). Shige bao 1987-12-21.
———. “Jinti shitan: dui xingshi de panduan” 今日诗坛—对形势的判断 [Poetry World Today: An Assessment of the Current Situation]. Shige bao 1988-9-6.
Shang Zhiying 尚志英. Xunzhao jiayuan: duowei shiye zhong de Weitegensetan yuyan zhexue: 寻找家园—多维视野中的维特根斯坦语言哲学 [Looking For Home: Wittgenstein’s Linguistic Philosophy in a Multidimensional Perspective]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1992.
Shanghai xinwen chuban xitong “Wu.qi” ganxiao fanyizu 上海新闻出版系统 “五·七” 干校翻译组. Ni daodi yao shenme? 你到底要什么? [What Is It You Want?], by Keqietuofu 柯切托夫 [Kochetov, Vsevolod Anissimovich]. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin, 1972 [Chinese translation of Kochetov 1968].
Shao Chunguang 邵春光. “Taikong bi” 太空笔 [Space Pen] (poem), in: Xu Jingya 1988, 327.
She Biping 佘碧平. Xiandaixing de yiyi yu juxian现代性的意义与局限 [The Meaning and Limitation of Modernity]. Shanghai: Sanlian, 2000.
Shenzhen qingnian bao 深圳青年报 [Shenzhen Youth Herold] (newspaper), published from 1984 to 1987 in Shen­zhen.
Sherover-Marcuse, Erica. The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics, by Marcuse, Herbert. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1978 [English translation of Marcuse 1977].
Shi chao 诗潮 [Poetry Waves] (poetic journal), published in Shenyang.
Shi Guanghua 石光华. “Jieshu zhi dun” 结束之遁 [The Escape of the End] (poem cycle), Zhongguo wenxue 1986.10.
———. “Meihua san nong” 梅花三弄 [Three Refrains of Plum Flowers] (poem).
Shi kan 诗刊 [Poetry Periodical] (poetic journal), published in Beijing.
Shi lin 诗林 [Poetry Forest] (poetic journal), published in Harbin.
Shi tansuo 诗探索 [Explorations of Poetry] (poetic journal), published since 1980 by Zhongguo dangdai wenxue yanjiuhui 中国当代文学研究会 in Beijing.
Shi Xianrong 施咸荣 (tr.). Maitianli de shouwangzhe 麦田里的守望者 [The Catcher in the Rye], by Sailinge 塞林格 [Salinger, Jerome David]. Beijing: Zuojia, 1963 [Chinese translation of Salinger 1951].
——— (tr.). Dengdai Geduo 等待戈多 [Waiting for Godot], by Beikete 贝克特 [Becket, Samuel Barclay]. Beijing: Zhongguo xiju, 1965.
Shi Zhi 食指 [Guo Lusheng 郭路生]. Xiangxin weilai! 相信未来 [Believe in the Future]. Nanning: Lijiang, 1988.
———. “Bolang yu Haiyang” 波浪与海洋 [Waves and Sea] (1st poem of the “Haiyang sanbuqu” cycle).
———. “Gei pengyou” 给朋友 [To Friends] (poem, 3rd part of the “Haiyang sanbuqu” cycle).
———. “Haiyang sanbuqu” 海洋三部曲 [Sea Trilogy] (poem cycle, written 1965–1968).
———. “Yu’er sanbuqu“ 鱼儿三部曲 [Fish Trilogy] (poem cycle, written 1967).
———. “Xiangxin weilai!” 相信未来! [Believe in the Future!] (poem, written 1968), in: Shi Zhi 1988, 26; Xie Mian and Qian Liqun 1996, 518].
———. “Zai ye xianbuqi bolang de hai” 再也掀不起波浪的海 [The Sea without Billows] (poem, 2nd part of the “Haiyang sanbuqu” cycle), in: Lin Mang and Liu Fuchun 1998, 2.
———. “Zhe shi sidianlingbafen de Beijing” 这是四点零八分的北京 [This is Beijing at 4:08] (poem, written 1968).
Shige bao 诗歌报 [Poetry Press] (poetic journal), published in Hefei.
“Ship” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Shiren 诗人 [The Poet], Russian film, Chinese edition adapted by Cui Chao­ming 崔超明 and Zhao Shenzhi 赵慎之 in 1958.
Shizhong ganjue 十种感觉 [Ten Senses] (collection of poems).
Shoudu dazhuan yuanxiao hongdaihui “Hongweibing wenyi” bianjibu 首都大专院校红代会《红卫兵文艺》编辑部 (eds.). Xie zai huohong de zhanqi shang: Hongweibing shi xuan 写在火红的战旗上—红卫兵诗选 [Written on the Firy Red Battle Flag: Collection of Poems of Red Guards]. Beijing: Shoudu dazhuan yuanxiao hongdaihui, 1968.
Shu Ting 舒婷 [Gong Peiyu 龚佩瑜]. Shuangwei chuan 双桅船 [Brigs] (collection of poems). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1983.
———. Hui changge de yuanweihua 会唱歌的鸢尾花 [Singing Irises] (collection of poems). Chengdu: Sichuan wenyi, 1986.
———. Xin yan 心烟[Heart Smoke]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1988.
———. Shu Ting de shi 舒婷的诗 [Shu Ting’s Poems]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1994.
———. Zhi xiangshu 致橡树 [Ode to the Oak]. Suzhou: Jiangsu wenyi, 2003.
———. “A, muqin” 啊,母亲 [Oh, Mother] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1983, 14.
———. “Buyao wan shu women shouzhong de niao” 不要玩熟我们手中的鸟 [Don’t Play too much with the Bird in our Hands] (essay), in: Shu Ting 1988, 170-174.
———. “Chuan” 船 [Ship] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1983, 12; Zhi xiangshu (2003), 11.
———. “Chunye” 春夜 [Spring Night] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1983, 32.
———. “Du gei mama ting de shi” 读给妈妈听的诗 [Poetry Read to Mothers] (poem), in: Shu Ting 2003, 15.
———. “Guangquan de houmian” 光圈的后面 [Behind the Ring of Light] (essay).
———. “Hui changge de yuanweihua” 会唱歌的鸢尾花 [Singing Irises] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1986, 86.
———. “Kuizeng” 馈赠 [Gift] (poem), Shi kan 1980.8, 18-19.
———. “Liushui xian” 流水线 [Streamline] (poem).
———. “Lu yu” 路遇 [Encounter] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1983, 49.
———. “Niaoluo meng yue” 茑萝梦月 [Cypress Vine Dreaming of Moon] (poem), in: Shu Ting 1983, 44.
———. “Ren a, lijie wo ba” 人啊,理解我吧 [Humans, Understand Me] (essay), in Lao Mu 1985, 21.
———. “Shenghuo, shuji yu shi” 生活、书籍与诗 [Life, Books, and Poetry] (essay), in: Shu Ting 1988, 144-157.
———. “Shennü feng” 神女峰 [Goddess Peak] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 81.
———. “Shen qi” 神启 [Divine Revelation], in: Shu Ting 1988 (essay), 175-178.
———. “‘Shi sanshou’ xu” 诗三首·序 [Preface to “Three Poems”] (poem), Shi kan 1980.10, 11.
———. “Shuangwei chuan” 双桅船 [Brigs] (poem).
———. “Sinian” 思念 [Yearning] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 29.
———. “Siyue de huanghun” 四月的黄昏 [The Nightfall in April] (poem), Anhui wenxue 1980.1, 45.
———. “Tonghua shiren: gei G·C” 童话诗人—给 G·C [Fairytale Poet: For G.G], in: Shu Ting 1983, 64.
———. “Xiangei wode tongdairen” 献给我的同代人 [For My Generation] (poem), in: Shu Ting de shi (1994), 26.
———. “Xiaochuang zhi ge” 小窗之歌 [Song of the Small Window] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 37.
———. “Yi youshang de mingliang touche chen mo” 以忧伤的明亮透彻沉默 [To Penetrate Silence with the Brightness of Sadness], in: Shu Ting 1988, 158-169.
———. “Yidairen de husheng” 一代人的呼声 [One Generation’s Call] (poem), Shi kan 1998.11, 25.
———. “Zai shige de shizijia shang” 在诗歌的十字架上 [On the Cross of Poetry] (poem), Huacheng 1981.2, 184-185.
———. “Zeng” 赠 [Gift] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 15.
———. “Zhe yeshi yiqie” 这也是一切 [This is also Everything], Xinhua wenzhai 1986.11, 108.
———. “Zhi dahai” 致大海 [To the Ocean] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 3.
———. “Zhi xiangshu” 致橡树 [Ode to the Oak] (poem), in: Zhi xiangshu (2003), 24.
———. “Zhubei: dahai de yanlei” 珠贝—大海的眼泪 [Pearl Shells: Tears of the Sea] (10 poems)
———. “Zuihou de wange” 最后的挽歌 [The Last Elegy] (poem).
——— and Gu Cheng. Shuqingshi xuan: 1971–1981 抒情诗选: 一九七一年 – 一九八一年 [Anthology of Expressive Lyrics]. Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1982.
——— et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 56-57.
Shu Ting’s Poems, see Shu Ting.
Sifenwulie 四分五裂 [Disintegration] (collection of poems).
Singing Irises (collection of poem), see Shu Ting.
“Singing Irises” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Sky” (poem), see Mang Ke.
“Ski, Dance, Sing” (poem), see Ruo Zi.
“Snow-White Wall” (poem), see Liang Xiaobin.
“Social Development and Modern Poetry” (essay), see Wu Sijing.
“Solo” (poem), see Huang Xiang.
“Some Traditional Factors Changed by the New Poetry Waves”, see Chen Zhongyi.
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich Солженицын, Александр Исаевич. “Odin den’ Ivana Denisovicha” Один день Ивана Денисовича [One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich], Novy Mir Новый мир 1962.11, 8-72 [cf. Parker 1963; Cao Suling et al. 1963].
Song Haiquan 宋海泉. “Baiyangdian suoyi” 白洋淀琐忆 [Memories of Baiyangdian] (essay), Shi tansuo 1994.4, 119-145; also in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 236-263.
“Song of the Small Window” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“Song of the Young Pioneers” (poem), see Xu Rongjie and Qian Zulai.
Song Qu 宋渠 and Song Wei 宋炜. “Da fo” 大佛 [Big Buddha] (poem).
———. “Da yue shi” 大曰是 [Great Saying So] (poem).
Sontag, Susan. Against Interpretation and Other Essays. New York: Delta, 1966.
———. “Against Interpretation” (essay, written 1964), first published in Sontag 1966.
“Sound” (poem), see Yang Li.
Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry, see Perrine.
Source of Words, see Lu Feikui.
“‘South’, Another Rising Poetic Group” (essay), see Yi Dian.
“Space Pen” (poem), see Shao Chunguang.
Spengler, Oswald. Der Untergang des Abendlands [The Decline of the West], Vol. 1: Gestalt und Wirklichkeit [Form and Actuality]; Vol. 2: Welthistorische Perspektiven [Perspectives of World History]. Wien: Braumüller, 1918 [Vol. 1]; München: Beck, 1922 [Vol. 2] [cf. Atkinson 1926; Chen Xiaolin 1986].
Sprache und Mythos, see Cassirer.
“Spring Night” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Standing in the Wind: Poetry Scroll, see Niu Han.
“Standing for the First Time” (poem), see Wang Chuanping.
Starting from the Periphery: An Alternative Tradition of Modern Chinese Poetry, see Xi Mi.
Stawell, Maud Margaret Key (tr.). Fabre’s Book of Insects, by Fabre, Jean-Henri Casimir. London, Hodden & Stoughton, 1917 [English translation of Fabre 1879–1909].
“Steamer Ticket” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“Streamline” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Stevens, Wallace. “Anecdote of a Jar” (poem, first published 1919).
“Stone Axe” (poem of the Banpo series), see Yang Lian.
“Storm is Coming at This Night” (poem), see Yu Jian.
“Strangers” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Strange Beach (collection of poems), see Bei Dao.
“Streams beneath Solid Ice” (essay), see Chen Mo.
“Streets during Festivals in China” (poem), see Yu Jian.
Studies on New Fictions Schools, see Liu Mingjiu.
Style of the South, see Wang Gan.
Su Hang 苏杭 (tr.). “Niangzigu” ji jita: Sulian qingnian shiren shi xuan〈娘子谷〉及其他—苏联青年诗人诗选 [“Babi Yar” and Others: Selected Poems of Young Soviet Poets], by Yefudushenke 叶夫杜申科 [Yevtushenko, Yev­ge­ny Aleksandrovich] et al. Beijing: Zuojia, 1963.
Su Tong 苏童 [A Tong 阿童]. “Sangyuan liunian” 桑园留念 [Memory of the Mulberry Garden] (poem).
“Subjectivity”, see Tao Dongfeng.
Sun Jilin 孙基林. See Wu Kajin 1991.
———. Piaobo de shengming: Zhu Xiang 漂泊的生命—朱湘 [A Wandering Life: Zhu Xiang]. Jinan: Shandung huabao, 1998.
———. Neizai de yanjing: Xiandai shixue wengao 内在的眼睛—现代诗学文稿 [Inherent Eyes: Papers on Modern Poetic]. Beijing: Zhongguo wenlian, 1999.
———. Jueqi yu xuanxiao: cong menglongshi dao disandai 崛起与喧嚣—从朦胧诗到第三代 [Rise and Noise: From Misty Poetry to the Third Generation]. Beijing: Guoji wenhua, 2004.
———. Xiandaishi: jiangshu yu pinglun 现代诗—讲述与评论 [Contemporary Poetry: Narration and Comments]. Jinan: Shandong wenyi, 2015.
Sun Shaozhen 孙绍振. “Gei yishu de gexinzhe geng ziyou de kongqi” 给艺术的革新者更自由的空气 [Give Innovators of Art Freer Air] (essay), Shi kan 1980.9, 49-51.
———. “Xinde meixue yuanze zai jueqi” 新的美学原则在崛起 [New Aesthetic Rules are Rising] (essay), Shi kan1981.3, 55-58.
Sunken Sanctuary: A Phantome Picture of the Underground Poetry of the Seventies of the 20th Century (collection of essays), see Liao Yiwu.
“Sunshine in Youth” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
Sunshine on the Ground (collection of poems), see Hong Zicheng.
“Surpass Reality, Surpass Self” (essay), see Wu Sijing.
“Swim Upstream” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
Symbolism, see Chadwick.
“Symbolism”, see Liang Zongdai.
“Synaesthesia” (essay), see Qian Zhongshu.

Tamen 他们 [Others] (literary journal), published 1985–1995 in Nanjing.
Tan Dali 谭大立 and Gong Jianming 龚见明 (trs.). Fuhaoxue yu wenxue 符号学与文学 [Semiotics and Literature], by Sigelesi 司格勒斯 [Scholes, Robert E.]. Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi, 1988 [Chinese translation of Scholes].
Tang Xiaodu 唐晓渡 and Wang Jiaxin王家新 (eds.). Zhongguo dangdai shiyan shi xuan 中国当代实验诗选 [Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Experimental Poetry]. Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi, 1987.
———. Tang Xiaodu shixuelun ji 唐晓渡诗学论集 [Collection of Poetics by Tang Xiaodu]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 2001.
———. “Mang Ke: yigeren he tade shi” 芒克—一个人和他的诗 [Mang Ke: A Man and His Poems], in: Shi tansuo 1995.3, 111-131; also in: Tang Xiaodu 2001, 111-131, and 133.
———. “Gu Cheng zhi si” 顾城之死 [Gu Cheng’s Death], in: Tang Xiaodu 2001, 194-208.
Tang Yaping 唐亚平. “Heise shamo” 黑色沙漠 [Black Desert] (poem series), in: Xie Mian 1997.
Tang Yaping Collection, see Xie Mian.
Tao Dongfeng 陶东风. “Zhuti Xing” 主体性 [Subjectivity], in: Hong Zicheng 2002, 160-170.
Ten Senses (collection of poems), see Shizhong ganjue.
Teng Shouyao 滕守尧. “Zouxiang ‘guocheng’ de xiandai meixue yu yishu” 走向“过程”的现代美学与艺术[Modern Aesthetics and Art that Are Turning to “Process”]. Shanghai wenxue 1987.2, 75-83.
The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics, see Marcuse.
The Analects, with Interpretation and Notes, see Yang Bojun.
“The Appearance of Heathenish Beauty” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou.
“The Breakdown of Poets” (essay), see Liang Xiaobin
“The Bright Moon is Rising” (poem), see Han Dong.
The Broken Century: On Modern Literary Spirit in the West, see Yi Dan.
“The Buried Chinese Poets (1972–1978)” (essay), see Duo Duo.
The Catcher in the Rye, see Salinger.
The Cock Crows at Midnight, see Gao Yubao.
The Common Reader, see Woolf.
“The Concept of Modernism”, see Hauer and Liu.
The Creative Process: A Symposium, see Ghiselin.
“The Death of Gnomon: After the ‘Misty Poems’” (essay), see Xu Jingya.
The Decline of the West, see Spengler.
“The Department of Chinese” (poem), see Li Yawei.
“The Discovery of Sound”, see Yang Li.
“The End” (poem), see Gu Cheng.
“The End or the Beginning” (poem), see Bei Dao.
“The Escape of the End” (poem cycle), see Shi Guanghua.
The Flowers of Evil, see Baudelaire.
“The Historical Evolution and Development Prospects of Western Subjectivity Thought”, see Duan Dezhi.
“The Lake” (poem), see Lamartine.
“The Last Elegy” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“The Launch of Today and Its Golden Age” (essay), see Liao Yiwu.
“The Little Girl That’s Pushing Stone Roller” (poem), see Wang Chuanping.
“The Meaning and Limitation of Modernity”, see She Biping.
“The Moment of Sunset” (poem), see Xiao Hai.
“The Mood of September” (poem), see Lan Ma.
“The Most Beautiful Is Always Tomorrow” (essay), see Gu Cheng.
The Myth of Sisy­phus (essay), see Camus.
The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System, see Djilas.
“The Nightfall in April” (poem), see Shu Ting.
The Origin of Gods, see He Xin.
“The Original Meaning and Other Interpretations of the Theory of Evolution”, see Yang Guoqiang.
“The Panther” (poem), see Rilke.
The Philosophical Discurse of Modernity, see Habermas.
The Poet (Russian film), see Shiren.
“The Poet Who Is not Buried” (essay), see Lin Mang.
“Three Primary Colors” (poem), see Che Qianzi.
The Question of Humanism, see Goicoechea et al.
The Revolution Betrayed, see Trotzky.
The Sacred Wood (collection of essays), see Eliot.
“The Sea without Billows”, see Zhang Langlang.
“The ‘Second Wave’ of Contemporary Youth Poetry Movement and its New Challenges” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou.
“The Self-Salvation of Poetry”, see A Wu.
The Stars (poetical monthly), see Xingxing [shi kan].
The Stranger, see Camus.
“The Sun: Seven Books” (poetic play), see Hai Zi.
“The Sun and his Reflections” (poem series), by Jiang He.
The Sun and his Reflections (collection of poem), by Jiang He.
“The Sun and Humans” (poem series), by Yang Lian.
“The Sun Goes Down” (poem), see Mang Ke.
“The Symbolism of Poetry”, see Yeats.
The Thaw, see Ehrenburg.
The True Story of Ah Q (short story), see Lu Xun.
“The Waste Land” (poem), see Eliot.
The White Stone (collection of poems), see Han Dong.
“The Third Generation Poetry” (conversations), see “Disandai shi”.
“The ‘X Society of Poets’ and the Death of Guo Shiying” (essay), see Mou Dunbai.
The Youth (periodical), see Qingchun.
Theory of Literature, see Wellek and Warren.
Theory of the Self: Individual and Individual Self-awareness, see Kon.
“This is also Everything” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“This is Beijing at 4:08” (poem), see Shi Zhi.
“Three Glasses That Are the Same” (poem), see Hong Zicheng.
“Three Refrains of Plum Flowers” (poem), see Shi Guanghua.
Tianmu 天目 [Eye of the Sky] (collection of poems).
“Tibet” (poem series), see Yang Lian.
Time and Eternity, see Huang Yusheng.
“To Friends” (poem), see Shi Zhi.
“To Juan at the Winter Solstice”, see Graves.
„To Our Readers“ (preface), see Bei Dao.
“To Penetrate Silence with the Brightness of Sadness” (essay), see Shu Ting 1988, 15.
“To the Ocean” (poem), see Shu Ting.
“To the Sun” (poem), see Duo Duo.
“To Wandering Poets” (poem), see Xiao Jun.
Today (periodical), see Jintian.
Today and I”, See Xu Xiao.
Tomonobu, Imamichi 今道友信. Cunzai zhuyi meixue 存在主义美学 [Existentialist Aesthetic], translated by Cui Xianglu 崔相录 and Wang Shengping 王生平. Shenyang: Liaoning renmin, 1987.
Tong Jinghan 佟景韩 et al. (tr.). Ziwo lun: geren yu geren ziwo yishi 自我论—个人与个人自我意识 [Theory of the Self: Individual and Individual Self-awareness], by Kon, Igor Semenovich. Beijing: Sanlian, 1986 [Chinese translation of Kon 1984].
Tongdai 同代 [Contemporaries] (literary magazine).
Tomb Bed (collection of poems), see Hong Ying and Zhao Yiheng.
“Tough Guys”, see Li Yawei.
“Traces of the Books: A History of Inspired Reading” (essay), see Xiao Xiao.
Tractatus logico-philosophicus, see Witgenstein.
Tradition and Chinese People, see Liu Zaifu and Lin Gang.
“Tradition and Us” (essay), see Yang Lian.
“Transformed Structure: Inspiration of Modern Art” (essay), see Zhou Lunyou.
“Tree Nestle” (poem), see Zhong Ming.
Trotsky, Leon Тротский, Леон. “Predannaya revolyutsiya: chto takoye SSSR i kuda on idet” Преданная революция: что такое СССР и куда он идет? [The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going?]. Manuscript dated 1936 [cf. Eastman 1937; Chai Jinru 1963].
Tu Jiliang 涂纪亮. Xiandai Ouzhou dalu yuyan zhexue 现代欧洲大陆语言哲学 [Modern European Language of Philosophy]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1994.
Twilight of Subjectivity: Contributions to a Post-Individualist Theory, see Dallmayr.
“Two Generations” (essay), see Gu Gong.
“Two People Talking about Contemporary Poetry”, see Yu Jian and Han Dong.

“Über den Humanismus” (essay), see Heidegger.
“Un manifeste littéraire”, see Moréas.
Underground Literature of the “Cultural Revolution”: Cemetery and Cradle, see Yang Jian.
“Untitled” (essay), see Duo Duo.
Unterwegs zur Sprache, see Heidegger.

Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik, see Hegel.
Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie, see Hegel.

Waiting for Godot, see Becket.
“Wake Up” (poem), see Duo Duo.
“Walking to Confusion: Reflections on Avant-garde Poetic Sctivities” (essay), see Lan Ma.
Wan Junren 万俊人 (tr.). Zhutixing de huanghun 主体性的黄昏 [Twilight of Subjectivity], by Duo’ermai 多尔迈 [Dallmayr, Fred Reinhard]. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin, 1992.
Wan Xia 万夏 and Yang Li 杨黎 (eds.). Xiandaishi neibu jiaoliu ziliao 现代诗内部交流资料 [Modern Poetry Materials Intended for Internal Communication]. Chengdu, 1985.
——— and Xiao Xiao 潇潇 (eds.). Zhongguo xiandai shi biannianshi: Hou menglong shi quanji 中国现代诗编年史—后朦胧诗全集 [Chronicles of Modern Chinese Poetry: Complete Collection of Post-Misty Poems]. Chengdu: Sichuan jiaoyu, 1993.
———. “Hongwa” 红瓦 [Red Tile] (poem).
Wang Chuanping 王川平. “Dazu shike” 大足石刻 [Dazu Stone Carvings] (poem).
———. “Diyici zhanli” 第一次站立 [Standing for the First Time] (poem).
———. “Sige shenhua yingxiong he yige yaba nüren” 四个神话英雄和一个哑巴女人 [Four Mythical Heroes and One Mute Woman] (poem).
———. “Tui shinain de xiaonühai” 推石碾的小女孩) [The Little Girl That’s Pushing Stone Roller] (poem).
———. “Yuwu” 雩舞 [Sacrificial Dance Praying for Rain] (poem).
Wang Dawen 王大文 (tr.). Chongkun ji 昆虫记 [Records about Insects], by Fabu’er 法布尔 [Fabre, Jean-Henri Casimir]. Shanghai: Shangwu, 1933 [Chinese translation of Fabre 1879–1907, based on Stawell 1917].
Wang Enzhong 王恩衷 (tr.). Ailüete shixue wenji 艾略特诗学文集 [Collection of Poems and Essays by T.S. Eliot]. Beijing: Guoji wenhua, 1989.
——— (tr.). “Hamuleite ji qi wenti” 哈姆雷特及其他问题 [Hamlet and His Problems], by Ailüete 艾略特 [Eliot, T.S.], in: Wang Enzhong 1989, 9-15.
Wang Gan 王干. Nanfang de zhuti 南方的文体 [Style of the South]. Kunming: Yunnan renmin, 1994.
Wang Hui 汪晖. Wang Hui zixuan ji 汪晖自选集 [Selected Works of Wang Hui]. Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue, 1997.
———. “Weibo yu Zhongguo xiandaixing wenti” 韦伯与中国现代性问题 [Weber and Modernity in China], Xue ren 学人 1994.6, 381-424 [rpt. in Wang Hui 1997].
Wang Ning 王宁 (tr.). Zouxiang houxiandai zhuyi 走向后现代主义 [Approaching Postmodernism], ed. by Fokema 佛克马 [Fokkema, Douwe Wessel] and Bodunsi 伯顿斯 [Bertens, Johannes Willem]. Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1991 [Chinese translation of Fokkema and Bertens 1986].
Wang Shixie 王士燮 (tr.). Dai xingxing de huoche piao 带星星的火车票 [A Ticket to the Stars], by Akexiaonuofu 阿克肖诺夫 [Aksyonov, Vasily Pavlovich]. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1963 [Chinese translation of Ak­syo­nov 1961].
Wang Weike 王維克 (tr.). Shenqu 神曲 [Divine Comedy], by Danding 但丁 [Dante Alighieri]. 3 vols. Vol. 1: “Diyu” 地獄 [Hell]; Vol. 2: “Jingjie” 净界 [Pure World]; Vol. 3: “Tiantang” 天堂 [Paradiso]. Shanghai: Shangwu, 1948.
Wang Xiaoni 王小妮 et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 52-53.
Wang Yuechuan 王岳川. “Houxiandai zhuyi shixue pinge” 后现代主义诗学品格 [Postmodernist Poetic Character], Wenyi lilun yanjiu 文艺理论研究 1993.1, 52-59.
——— and Shang Shui 尚水. Houxiandai zhuyi wenhua yu meixue 后现代主义文化与美学[Postmodernist Culture and Aesthetics]. Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1992.
Watts, William (tr.). St. Augustine’s Confessions, with an English Translation. London: Heinemann, 1912 [bilingual Latin-English translation of Augustine of Hippo’s Confessiones].
“Waves and Sea” (poem), see Shi Zhi.
“Weaving and Sowing” (poem), see Yang Lian.
“Weber and Modernity in China”, see Wang Hui.
“Weixing fengbao” 微型风暴 (“Micro Storm”), column in Feifei 1 (1986).
Wellek, René and Warren, Austin. Theory of Literature. New York: Harcourt, 1942 [cf. Liu Xiangyu 1984].
Wenxue pinglun 文学评论[Literary Review] (periodical), published in Beijing.
Wenxue yanjiu cankao 文学研究参考 [Literature Research Reference] (periodical), published in Beijing.
Wenyi zhengming 文艺争鸣 [Literary Controversy] (periodical), published since 1986 in Changchun.
Wenyi bao 文艺报 [Literary Gazette] (periodical), published in Beijing.
Western Literary Theory of the 20th Century, see Wu Xiaoming.
“What are poets for?” (essay), see Heidegger.
What Is It You Want?, see Kochetov.
What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement, see Lenin.
“When People Stand up from Cheese” (poem), see Duo Duo.
“White Sand Island” (poem), see Yang Liuhong.
“Winter” (poem), see Xiao Jun.
“Wish Chairman Mao a Long Life” (poem), see Gu Jiong.
“Within Ten Years” (poem), see Bei Dao.
Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass: Poems of Walt Whitman. New York: Crowell, 1902 [cf. Weiteman 1949].
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951). Tractatus logico-philosophicus / Logisch-Philo­so­phi­sche Abhandlung, with English translaton by Russell, Bertrand. London: Kegan Paul, 1922 [cf. Zhang Shenfu 1988].
Wolves (mimeographed poetry publication), see Langmen.
“Women” (poem series), see Zhai Yongming.
Woolf, Virginia. The Common Reader. New York: Harcourt, 1925.
“Wor’sld” (long poem), see Lan Ma.
“Wozu Dichter?” (essay), see Heidegger.
Writer (literary periodical), see Zuojia.
Writing and Difference, see Derrida.
Written on the Firy Red Battle Flag (collection of Poems), see Shoudu dazhuan yuanxiao hongdaihui “Hongweibing wenyi” bianjibu.
Wu Kaijin 吴开晋, with Geng Jianhua 耿建华 and Sun Jilin 孙基林. Xin shiqi shi chao lun 新时期诗潮论 [New Poetry Tide]. Jinan: Jinan chubanshe, 1991.
Wu Sijing 吴思敬. Shixue chensi lu 诗学沉思录 [Reflections on Poetics]. Shenyang: Liaoning renmin, 2001.
———. Zou xiang zhexue de shi 走向哲学的诗 [Poetry towards Philosophy]. Beijing: Xueyuan, 2002.
———. “Shidai de jinbu yu xiandaishi” 时代的进步与现代诗 [Social Development and Modern Poetry] (essay), Shi tansuo 1981.2.
———. “Chaoyue xianshi chaoyue ziwo” 超越现实,超越自我 [Surpass Reality, Surpass Self], in: Wu Sijing 2002, 264-271.
Wu Xiaoming 伍晓明 (tr.). Ershi shiji Xifang wenxue lilun 二十世纪西方文学理论 [Western Literary Theory of the 20th Century], by Yige’ertun 伊格尔顿 [Eagleton, Terry]. Xi'an: Shaanxi shifan daxue, 1986.

Xi Mi 奚密. Cong bianyuan chufa: xiandai Hanshi de lingbie chuantong 从边缘出发—现代汉诗的另类传统. [Starting from the Periphery: An Alternative Tradition of Modern Chinese Poetry]. Guangzhou: Guangdong renmin, 2000.
Xian Meng 闲梦. “Ganga” 尴尬 [Awkwardness], in: Xu Jingya 1988, 246-248.
Xiao Chi肖驰. “‘Taiyang he tade fanguang’ de fanguang” “太阳和它的反光”的反光 [Reflections of “The Sun and His Reflections”] (cycle of poems), Wenxue pinglun 1985.5, 58-61.
Xiao Hai 小海. “Riluo shifen” 日落时分 [The Moment of Sunset] (poem).
Xiao Jun 小君 [Ye Zi 叶梓]. “Guo dong” 过冬 [Winter] (poem), in: Wan Xia and Xiao Xiao 1993, 912.
———. “Gei liulang shiren” 给流浪诗人 [To Wandering Poets] (poem).
———. “Wo yao zheyang” 我要这样 [I Will Be in This Way] (poem).
Xiao Xiao 萧萧. “Shu de guiji: yibu jingshen yuedu shi” 书的轨迹—一部精神阅读史 [Traces of the Books: A History of Inspired Reading] (essay), in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 4-16.
Xiao Yu 肖聿 (tr.). Xiangzheng zhuyi 象征主义 [Symbolism], by Chadeweike 查德维克 [Chadwick, Charles]. Taiyuan: Beiyue wenyi, 1989 [Chinese Translation of Chadwick 1971].
Xie Mian 谢冕. “Zai xinde jueqi mianqian” 在新的崛起面前 [In Front of the New Rise] (essay), Guangming ri­bao May 7th, 1980.
———. “Shiqule pingjing yihou” 失去了平静以后 [After Losing Peace] (essay), Shi kan 1980.12, 8.
———. “Duanlie yu qingxie: tuibian qi de touying” 断裂与倾斜—蜕变期的投影 [Breaking and Tilting: The Shadows of the Metamorphosis Stage]. Wenxue pinglun 1985.3, 43-52.
——— (ed.). Tang Yaping ji: Heise shamo 唐亚平集—黑色沙漠 [Tang Yaping Collection: Black Desert], by Tang Yaping 唐亚平. Shenyang: Changchun wenyi, 1997.
——— and Qian Liqun 钱理群 (eds.). Zhongguo bainian wenxue jingdian wenku, 1895–1995 中国百年文学经典文库, 1895–1995 [A Treasury of 20th Century Classical Chinese Literature]. Vol. 9: Shige juan 诗歌卷 [Poetry Volume]. Shenzhen: Haitian, 1996.
Xin guancha 新观察 [New Observations], name of a literary magazine published 1950–1960 and 1980–1989 in Beijing.
Xingxing [shi kan] 星星[诗刊] [The Stars] (poetical monthly), published in Chengdu.
Xinhua cishushe 新华辞书社 (eds.). Xinhua zidian 新华字典 [Xinhua Dictionary]. Beijing: Shangwu, 11953 and later revised editions.
Xinhua Dictionary, see Xinhua cishushe.
Xinhua wenzhai 新华文摘 [Digest of Chinese Journals] (periodical), published in Beijing.
Xinye 新叶 [New Leaves] (periodical).
Xu Haoyuan 徐浩渊. “Manjiang qing” 满江青 [Blue All Over the River] (poem).
Xu Jingya 徐敬亚. (ed.). Jueqi de shiqun: Zhongguo dangdai menglongshi yu shilun xuanji 崛起的诗群—中国当代朦胧诗与诗论选集[Rising Poetry Groups: Selected Works of Chinese Contemporary Obscure Poems and Poetics]. Shanghai: Tongji daxue, 1989.
———. “Jiduan zhuyi xuanyan” 极端主义宣言 [Declaration of Extremism], in: Xu Jingya et al. 1988, 152-153.
———. “Changjiang, zai women de shoubi shang liuguo” 长江,在我们的手臂上流过 [Yangtze River, Flows through Our Arms] (poem), Renmin wenxue 1982.3, 78-80.
———. “Fusu de miusi” 复苏的缪斯 [Rejuvenated Muse] (essay), in: Xu Jingya 1989, 11.
———. “Guinie zhi si” 圭臬之死—朦胧诗后. [The Death of Gnomon: After the Misty Poems] (essay), Yalüjiang 鸭绿江 1988.7, 68-77; see also Wenxue yanjiu cankao 文学研究参考 1986.6, 16-17.
———. “Jueqi de shiqun: ping woguo xinshi de xiandai qingxiang” 崛起的诗群—评我国新诗的现代倾向 [Rising Poetic Groups: On the Modern Tendency of Chinese New Poetry] (essay), Dangdai wenyi sichao 1983.1, 14-27; also in: Xu Jingya et al. 1988, 134-135; Yao Jiahua 1989, 274-285.
———. “Shike laoji shehui zhuyi de wenyi fangxiang” 时刻牢记社会主义的文艺方向 [Always Keep in Mind the Direction of Socialist Literature and Art” (essay), Renmin ribao 1984-03-05.
———. “Tade shi, qing ni modu” 她的诗,请你默读 [Her Poetry, Please Read in Silence], Xinye 1982.7, 214.
——— et al. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), see Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 49-51.
——— et al. (eds.). “Zhongguo shitan 1986: xiandaishi qunti dazhan” 中国诗坛 1986’ 现代诗群体大展 [“Grand Exhibition of Modern Poetic Groups on China’s Poetry Scene, 1986”], „Diyi, er, sanji“ 第一、二、三辑 [First, Second, and Third Collection], Shenzhen qingnian bao 深圳青年报 and Shige bao 1986-10-21 [1st.], 1986-10-21 [2nd.], 1986-10-24 [3rd. Collection].
———, Meng Lang 孟浪, Cao Changqing 曹长青, and Lü Guipin 吕贵品 (eds.). Zhongguo xiandai zhuyi shiqun daguan 1986–1988 中国现代主义诗群大观 1986–1988 [Grand View of Chinese Modernist Poetic Groups: 1986–1988]. Shanghai: Tongji daxue, 1988.
Xu Maoyong 徐懋庸 (tr.). Ren de yuanjing: zunzai zhuyi, tianzhujiao si­ixiang, Makesi zhuyi 人的远景—存在主义,天主教思想,马克思主义 [Perspectives of Man: Existentialism, Catholic Thinking, Structuralism, and Marxism]. by Jiaoluodi 加罗蒂 [Garaudy, Roger]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1965 [Chinese translation of Garaudy 1959].
Xu Rongjie 徐荣街 and Qian Zulai 钱祖来. “Langsong shi: Jiebanren zhi ge” 朗诵诗—接班人之歌 [Recital: Song of the Young Pioneers], Zhongguo qingnian 中国青年 1963.12, 24.
Xu Xiao 徐晓. “Jintian yu wo”《今天》与我 [Today and I], in: Liao Yiwu 1999, 379-415.
Xu Youyu 徐友渔 et al. (ed.). Yuyan yu zhexue: dangdai Ying-Mei yu De-Fa chuantong bijiao yanjiu 语言与哲学—当代英美与德法传统比较研究 [Language and Philosophy: A Comparative Study of Contemporary Anglo-American and German-French Traditions]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1996.

Yan Yuejun 阎月君 (ed.). Menglong shi xuan 朦胧诗选 [Anthology of Misty Poems]. Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi, [11985], 22002.
Yang Bojun 杨伯峻 (ed.). Lunyu yi zhu 论语译注 [The Analects, with Interpretation and Notes]. Shanghai: Zhonghua, 1984.
Bai nian 百年 (periodical).
Yang Guoqiang 杨国强. “Jinhualun de benyi yu biejie” 进化论的本义与别解 [The Original Meaning and Other Interpretations of the Theory of Evolution], Bai nian 1999.7.
Yang Jian 杨健. Wenhuadageming zhong de dixia wenxue: mudi yu yaolan 文化大革命中的地下文学—墓地与摇篮 [Underground Literature of the “Cultural Revolution”: Cemetery and Cradle]. Jinan: Zhaohua, 1993.
———. Zhongguo zhiqing wenxue shi 中国知青文学史 [History of the Literature of Chinese Educated Youth]. Beijing: Zhongguo gongren, 2002.
Yang Kuanghan杨匡汉 and Liu Fuchun 刘福春 (eds). Zhongguo xiandai shi lun 中国现代诗论 [On Chinese Contemporary Poetry]. 2 vols. Guangzhou: Huacheng, 1985 [vol. 1], 1986 [vol. 2].
Yang Li 杨黎. “Shengyin de faxian” 声音的发现 [The Discovery of Sound], Feifei 2 (1988).
———. “Dayu” 大雨 [Heavy Rain] (poem), Feifei 3 (1989), 96.
———. “Gaochu” 高处 [High Up] (poem), in: Zhou Youlun 1994, 33.
———. “Guaike” 怪客 [Eccentric] (poem).
———. “Leng fengjing” 冷风景 [Cold ] (poem), in: Niu Han 2000, 439.
———. “Lütu zhi yi” 旅途之一 [Journey] (poem).
———. Nanzhongguo shijuan 南中国诗卷 [Poetry Collection by Poets of Southern China] (unfinished book project).
———. “Shengyin” 声音 [Sound] (poem).
———. “Xiaozhen” 声音 [Little Town] (poem).
———. “Zhongwu” 中午 [Midday] (poem).
Yang Lian 杨炼. Huang 黄 [Yellow] (collection of poems). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1989.
———. Menglong shi xuan 朦胧诗选 [Anthology of Misty Poems]. Shenyang: Chunfeng wenyi, 2002.
———. “Banpo” 半坡 [Banpo], 1: “Shenhua” 神话 [Myth]; 2: “Shifu” 石斧 [Stone Axe]; 3: “Taoguan” 陶罐 [Earthen Pot]; 4: “Qionglu” 穹庐 [Canopy]; 5: “Mudi” 墓地 [Cemetery]; 6: “Jisi” 祭祀 [Sacrifices] (poem series), in: Yang Lian 1989, 55-84.
———. “Chuantong yu women” 传统与我们 [Tradition and Us] (essay), in: Lao Mu 1985, 69-73.
———. “Dayan ta” 大雁塔 [Big Wild Goose Pagoda] (poem), Huacheng 1982.9. 85.
———. “Dunhuang: Feitian” 敦煌·飞天 [Dunhuang: Flying Fairies] (poem), in: Yang Lian 1989, 86.
———. “Nuorilang” 诺日朗 [Nuorilang] (poem series), Shanghai wenxue 1983.5, 55.
———. “Nuorilang: Wuye de qingdian” 诺日朗·午夜的庆典 [Nuorilang: Midnight Celebrations] (poem), in: Yang Lian 1989, 104.
———. “Taiyang meitian dou shi xinde” 太阳每天都是新的 [Every Day is a New Day] (poem).
———. “Taiyang yu ren” 太阳与人 [The Sun and Humans] (poem series).
———. “Tudi” 土地 [Earth] (poem).
———. “Wode xuanyan” 我的宣言 [My Declaration] (essay), Fujian wenxue 1981.1, 60-61.
———. “Wupeng chuan” 乌篷船 [Black Awning Boat] (poem), in: Yang Lian 1989, 46.
———. “Xizang” 西藏 [Tibet] (poem series).
———. “Yige beifangren changgei changjiang de ge” 一个北方人唱给长江的歌 [A Song for the Changjiang River Sung by a Northener] (poem), Shanghai wenxue 1981.4, 10-11.
———. “Zhi yu bo” 织与播 [Weaving and Sowing] (poem), Shi kan 1980.8, 16-17.
———. “Zhili de kongjian” 智力的空间 [Intelligent Space] (essay), in: Lao Mu 1985, 74-80.
———. “Zibai” 自白 [Confession] (poem), in: Yang Lian 2002, 204.
Yang Liuhong 杨榴红. “Baisha dao” 白沙岛 [White Sand Island] (poem), Feitian飞天 1984.4, 103.
Yang Leyun 杨乐云 (tr.). “Shige zhong de xiangzheng zhuyi” 诗歌中的象征主义 [The Symbolism of Poetry], by Yezhi 叶芝 [Yeats, William Butler], in: Yuan Kejia 1989, 793-803 [Chinese translation of Yeats 1900].
“Yangtze River, Flows through Our Arms” (poem), see Xu Jingya.
Yao Jiahua 姚家华 (ed.). Menglongshi lunzheng ji 朦胧诗论争集 [Controversy on Misty Poetry]. Beijing: Xueyuan, 1989.
“Yearning” (poem), see Shu Ting.
Yeats, William Butler. “The Symbolism of Poetry”, The Dome: An Illustrated Magazine and Review of Literature, Music, Architecture, and the Graphic Arts, N. S., Vol. 6 (April 1900), 249-257 [cf. Yang Leyun 1989].
Yellow (collection of poems), by Yang Lian.
Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Евтушенко, Евгений Александрович. “Babiy Yar” Бабий Яр [Babi Yar], Literaturnaya Gazeta Литературная Газета 112 (1961) [cf. Marshall 1966; Su Hang 1964].
Yi Dan 易丹. Duanlie de shiji: lun xifang xiandai wenxue jingshen 断裂的世纪—论西方现代文学精神 [The Broken Century: On Modern Literary Spirit in the West]. Chengdu: Sichuan daxue, 1992.
Yi Dian 伊甸. “Nanfang, you yige jueqi de shiqun” “南方”,又一个崛起的诗群 [“South”, Another Rising Poetic Group] (essay), Shi lin 诗林 1985.4, 7-8.
———. “Kuaile de nü chegong” 快乐的女车工 [Happy Women Lathe Operators] (poem), Feitian, 1984.1, 96.
Yijing 易经 [Book of Changes] (ancient oracle book).
Yin Baoshu 殷宝书 (tr.). Zenyang xinxhang Ying-Mei shige 怎样欣赏英美诗歌 [Sound and Sense: An Introduction to Poetry], by Polin 坡林 [Perrine, Laurence]. Beijing: Beijing, 1985 [Chinese translation of Perrine 1963].
Yinxing 银杏 [Ginkgo] (literary magazine).
“You Saw the Sea” (poem), see Han Dong.
“Youth and Poetry” (essay), see Han Dong.
Young Poets (poetic journal), see Qingnian shiren.
Young Poets on Poetry, see Lao Mu.
“Your Hands” (poem), see Han Dong.
Yu Cijiang 于慈江. “Xinshi de yizhong xuanxudiao” 新诗的一种宣叙调 [A Narrative Tone of New Poetry]. Dangdai wenyi tansuo 当代文艺探索 1985. 4, 24-28.
Yu Daxiang 喻大翔 and Liu Qiuling 刘秋玲 (eds.). Menglong shi jingxuan 朦胧诗精选 [Anthology of Misty Poems]. Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue, 1986.
Yu Hong 余虹. Si yu shi de duihua 思与诗的对话 [Dialogue between Thought and Poetry]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1991.
Yu Jian 于坚. Zongpi shouji 棕皮手记 [Notes with a Brown Cover]. Shanghai: Dongfang, 1997.
———. “Biyu de niao” 避雨的鸟 [Birds Hiding from Rain] (poem).
———. “Chitang Yueye” 池塘月夜) [Moonlight over a Pond] (poem).
———. “Dui yizhi wuya de mingming” 对一只乌鸦的命名 [Naming of a Crow] (poem).
——— and Han Dong 韩东. “Xiandai shige erren tan” 现代诗歌二人谈 [Two People Talking about Contemporary Poetry]. Yunnan wenyi tongxun 1986.9, 24.
——— and Zhu Wen 朱文. “Dui ershiwu ge wenti de huida” 对二十五个问题的回答 [Answers to Twenty-five Questions], Tamen 7 (1994), 124-134.
———. “Jieri de Zhongguo dajie” 节日的中国大街 [Streets during Festivals in China] (poem, written 1982).
———. “Shangyi jie liu hao” 尚义街六号 [No. 6 Shangyi Street] (poem), Shi kan 2000.8, 56-57.
———. “Shige jingshen de chongjian” 诗歌精神的重建 [Reconstruction of Poetic Spirit], Shige bao 1988-7-4, 2.
———. “Tamen shi xuan” 《他们》诗选 [Anthology of Poems from Others], Dangdai qingnian 1988.6, 40-41.
———. “Zai lütu zhong buyao cuoguo jihui” 在旅途中不要错过机会 [Don’t Miss Anything on the Way] (poem), Shanghai wenxue 1988.3, 55.
———. “Zhege yewan baoyu jiang zhi” 这个夜晚暴雨将至 [Storm is Coming at This Night] (poem).
Yu Luoke 遇罗克. “Chushen lun” 出身论 [Essay on Parentage and Origins], Zhongxue wenge bao 中学文革报 1 (1967).
Yu Xiao 于晓 (tr.). Yuyan yu shenhua 语言与神话 [Language and Myth], by Kaxi’er 卡西尔 [Cassirer, Ernst]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1988 [Chinese translation of Cassirer 1925].
Yuan Kejia 袁可嘉 (ed.). Xiandai zhuyi wenxue yanjiu 现代主义文学研究 [Research on Modernist Literature]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1989.
———. Ou Mei xiandai pai wenxue gailun 欧美现代派文学概论 [Introduction to Modernist Literary Theories in Europe and America]. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1993.
Yunnan wenyi tongxun 云南文艺通讯 [Yunnan Literature and Art Newsletter] (periodical), published from 1989 to 2007 in Kunming.
Yuzhou feng 宇宙风 [Cosmic Wind] (literary magazine), published 1935–1947 in Shanghai, mainly edited by Lin Yutang 林语堂.

Zabel, Morton Dauwen (ed.). Literary Opinion in America: Essays Illustrating the Status, Methods, and Problems of Criticism in the United States in the Twentieth Century. Revised edition. 2 vols. New York: Harper, 1951.
Zhai Yongming 翟永明. “Nü ren” 女人 [Women] (poem series).
Zhang Langlang 张郎郎. “‘Taiyang zongdui’ chuanshuo ji qita” “太阳纵队”传说及其他 [Legend of the “Solar Brigade” and Other Things] (essay), in: Liao 1999, 30-56.
———. “Ranshao de xin” 燃烧的心 [Flaming Heart] (long poem).
Zhang Longxi 张隆溪. Ershi shiji xifang wenlun shuping 二十世纪西方文论述评 [Review of Western Literary Essays in the 20th Century]. Beijing: Sanlian, 1986.
Zhang Ming 章明. “Ling ren qimende ‘Menglong’” 令人气闷的“朦胧” [Puzzling “Misty”] (essay), Shi kan 1980.8, 53-55.
Zhang Ning 张宁 (tr.). Shuxie yu chayi 书写与差異 [Writing and Difference], by Delida 德里达 [Derrida, Jacques]. Beijing: Sanlian, 2001 [Chinese translation of Derrida 1967].
Zhang Shenfu 张申府. Mingli lun: Luoji zhexue lun名理论—逻辑哲学论 [Tractatus logico-philosophicus], by Weitegensitan 维特根斯坦 [Wittgenstein, Ludwig]. Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1988.
Zhang Wei 张炜. “Shengming de xuanlü” 生命的旋律 [Melody of Life].
———. “Yaobaiwu” 摇摆舞 [Jive], name later changed into “Melody of Life”.
Zhang Xuemeng 张学梦, Gao Falin 高伐林, Xu Jingya 徐敬亚, Gu Cheng 顾城, Wang Xiaoni 王小妮, Liang Xiaobin 梁小斌, Shu Ting 舒婷 [Gong Peiyu 龚佩瑜], and Jiang He 江河. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), Shi tansuo 1980.1, 46-59.
———. “Qing tingting womende shengyin: qingnian shiren bitan” 请听听我们的声音—青年诗人笔谈. [Please Listen to Our Voice: Written Talks by Young Poets] (essay), in: Zhang Xuemeng et al. 1980, 46-47.
Zhang Yaxin 章亚昕. “Zhiqing tiyan he xiaoyuan tiyan” 知青体验和校园体验 (Experiences of the Educated Youth and Campus Experiences), http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5b1b0c020100c2hi.html (2008).
Zhang Yue 张月 (tr.). Shi, yuyan, si 詩・語言・思 [Poetry, Language, Thought], by Haidege’er 海德格尔 [Heidegger, Martin]. Zhengzhou: Huanghe wenyi, 1989 [Chinese translation of Hofstadter 1971].
Zhao Leshen 赵乐甡, Che Cheng’an 车成安, and Wang Lin 王林. Xifang xiandaipai wenxue yu yishu. 西方现代派文学与艺术 [Modernist Literature and Art in the West]. Changchun: Shidai wenyi, 1986.
Zhao Luorui 赵萝蕤 (tr. dated 1937). “Huangyuan” 荒原 [The Waste Land], by Ailüete 艾略特 [Eliot, T. S.] [Chinese edition of Eliot 1922].
Zhao Yiheng 赵毅衡 (tr.). Meiguo xiandaishi xuan 美国现代诗选 [Anthology of Modern American Poetry]. Beijing: Waiguo wenxue, 1985.
———. Xinpiping: yizhong dute de xingshi zhuyi wenlun 新批评—一种独特的形式主义文论 [New Criticism: A Unique Formalist Literary Theory]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui, 1986.
——— (ed. / tr.). “Xin piping” wenji 《新批评》文集 [Collected Works of “New Criticism”]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue,1988.
———. “Fanfeng: yizhong jiegou yuanze” 反讽—一种结构原则 [Irony as a Principle of Structure], by Bulukesi 布鲁克斯 [Brooks, Cleanth], in: Zhao Yiheng 1988, 333-350 [Chinese translation of Brooks 1951].
Zheng Bonong 郑伯农. “Zai ‘jueqi’ de shenglang mianqian” 在“崛起”的声浪面前 [Before the Voice of ‘Rising’] (essay), Shi kan 1983.12, 41.
Zheng Yonghui 郑永慧 (tr.). Yan’e ji qita 厌恶及其他 [Nausea, and Other], by Sate 萨特 [Sartre, Jean-Paul]. Shanghai: Shanghai yiwen, 1986 [Chinese translation of Sartre 1938].
Zhong Ming 钟鸣. “Shuchao” 树巢 [Tree Nestle] (poem).
Zhongguo 中国 [China] (magazine), published bei Beijing: Renmin huabaoshe 人民画报社, 1980–2000.
Zhonggong zhongyang Makesi En’gesi Liening Sidalin zhuzuo bianyiju 中共中央马克思恩格斯列宁斯大林著作编译局. Zenme ban? women yundongzhong de poqie wenti 怎么办? 我们运动中的迫切問題 [What Is to Be Done? Burning Questions of Our Movement], by Liening 列宁 [Lenin]. Beijing: Renmin, 1960 [Chinese translation of Lenin 1902].
Zhongguo kexueyuan yuyan yanjiusuo cidian bianjishi 中国科学院语言研究所词典编辑室 (eds.). Xiandai Hanyu cidian 现代汉语词典 [Modern Chinese Dictionary]. Beijing: Shangwu, 11973 and later revised editions.
Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan waiguo wenxue yanjiusuo 中国社会科学院外国文学研究所 (eds.). Waiguo lilunjia zuojia “Lun xingxiang siwei” 外国理论家作家《论形象思维》 [Discussions of Imagery Thinking by Foreign Theorists and Writers]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1979.
——— (tr.). “Lun chuangzaoxing de xiangxiang” 论创造性的想象 [Essay on the Creative Imagination], by Li Bo* 李博 [Ribot, Théodule], in: Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan waiguo wenxue yanjiusuo 1979, 183-188.
Zhongguo wenxue 中国文学 [Chinese Literature] (literary magazine), published in Beijing.
Zhou Lunyou 周伦佑. Dakai routi zhi men: feifei zhuyi cong lilun dao zuopin 打开肉体之门—非非主义从理论到作品 [Open the Door to the Flesh: No-Noism from Theory to Work] (collection of essays). Lanzhou: Dunhuang wenyi, 1994.
———. Fan jiazhi shidai: dui dangdai wenxue guannian de jiazhi jiegou 反价值时代—对当代文学观念的价值解构 [Anti-Value Era: Deconstruction of the Value of Contempoary Literary Ideas] (collection of essays). Chengdu: Sichuan renmin, 1999,
———. “Biangou: dangdai yishu qishilu” 变构—当代艺术启示录 [Transformed Structure: Inspiration of Modern Art] (essay), Feifei 1 (1986).
———. “Dangdai qingnian shige yundong di er langchao yu xinde tiaozhan” 当代青年诗歌运动第二浪潮与新的挑战 [The Second Wave of Contemporary Youth Poetry Movement and its New Challenges] (essay, first published in Feifei pinglun), in: Zhou Lunyou 1999, 186-193.
———. “Fan jiazhi” 反价值 [Anti-Value] (essay), Feifei 2 (1988), 18-44.
———. “Feifei zhuyi xiaocidian” 非非主义小辞典 [Dictionary of No-Noism], Feifei 1 (1986).
———. “Hongse xiezuo” 红色写作 [Red Writing] (essay), Feifei 1992, 1-17.
———. “Yiduan zhi mei de chengxian” 异端之美的呈现 [The Appearance of Heathenish Beauty] (essay), Shi tansuo, 1994.2. 106-108.
———. “Ziyou fangkuai” 自由方块 [Free Blocks] (essay), in: Zhou Youlun 1994, 15.
——— and Lan Ma 蓝马. “Feifei zhuyi shige fangfa” 非非主义诗歌方法 [Poetic Methods of No-Noism] (essay), Feifei 1 (1986), 71-73.
Zhou Shiliang 周士良 (tr.). Chanhui lu 忏悔录 [Confessions], by Augusiding奥古斯丁 [Augustine of Hippo]. Beijing: Shangwu, 1981 [Chinese translation of Augustine’ Confessiones].
Zhu Guangqian朱光潜 (tr.). Mei xue 美学 [Aesthetics], by Heige’er 黑格尔 [Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich]. 3 vols. in 4 fasc.Beijing: Shangwu, 1982 [Chinese translation of Hegel 1835–1838].
Zhu Jinpeng 朱金鹏 and Zhu Li 朱荔 (trs.). Ou Mei wenxue shuyu ci dian欧美文学术语词典 [A Glossary of Literary Terms], by Aibulamusi 艾布拉姆斯 [Abrams, Meyer Howard]. Beijing: Beijing daxue, 1990 [Chinese translation of Abrams 1957].
Zhu Ziqing 朱自清. Shi ji 诗集 (1917–1927) [Anthology of Poems (1917–1927)]. Zhongguo xinwenxue daxi 中国新文学大系 [Series of Chinese New Literature], Vol. 8. Shanghai: Liangyou, 1935.
———. “Shiji daoyan” 《诗集》导言 [Introduction to Anthology of Poems], in: Zhu Ziqing 1935.
Zhuang Rouyu 庄柔玉. Zhongguo dangdai menglongshi yanjiu中国当代朦胧诗研究 [Research on Modern Chinese Misty Poetry]. Hong Kong: Da’an, 1993.
Zou Yu 邹羽 (tr.). Xiandai zhuyi 现代主义 [Modernism], by Fukena 福克纳 [Faulkner, Peter]. Harbin: Beifang wenyi, 1988. [Chinese translation of Faulkner 1977].
Zuojia 作家 [Writer] (literary periodical), published in Changchun.

Glossary (Names of Persons and Societies, Terms)

tongku 痛苦 (“pain bitter”).
“pain bitter”, see tongku.
xiangliang 響亮 (“loud bright”).
“loud bright”, see xiangliang.
tingjian 聽見 (“hear / see”).
“hear / see”, see tingjian.
lengjing 冷靜 (“cold quiet”).
“cold quiet”, see lengjing.
A Tong 阿童 (*1963), see Su Tong.
A Wu 阿吾 (*1965).
Abrams, Meyer Howard / Aibulamusi 艾布拉姆斯 (1912–2015).
“After-Misty Poetry”, see “Menglong shi hou”.
“After-New Poetry Wave”, see “Xinshi chao hou”.
Aggeler William (1904–1974).
Aibulamusi 艾布拉姆斯, see Abrams.
Ai Qing 艾青 (1910–1996).
Ailüete 艾略特, see Eliot.
Ailunbao 爱伦堡, see Ehrenburg.
Aiwu 艾芜 [Tang Daogeng 汤道耕] (1904–1992).
Akexiaonuofu 阿克肖诺夫, see Aksyonov.
Akhmatova, Anna / Ахматова, Анна (1889–1966).
Aksyonov, Vasily Pavlovich / Аксёнов, Василий Павлович / Akexiaonuofu 阿克肖诺夫] (1932–2009).
Alexander, Lloyd / Yalishanda 亞歷山大 (1924–2007).
Aristotle / Yalishiduode 亚里士多德 (Ancient Greek, 384–322 BCE).
Atkinson, Charles Francis (1880–1960).
Augustine [of Hippo] / Augusiding 奥古斯丁 (Ancient Rome, 354–430).

Ba Tie 巴铁 (*1958).
Bacon, Francis / Peigen 培根 (1561–1626).
“Badianzhong shipai” 八点钟诗派 (“Eight-O’clock Poetry School“).
Bai Hua 柏桦 (*1956).
Bai Ye 白夜, see Duo Duo.
Baigesen 柏格森, see Bergson.
“Baisehua” 百色花 (“Colorful Flowers”).
“Baisehua shishe” 百色花诗社 (“Colorful Flowers Poetry Society”).
“Baiyangdian Poets’ Community”, see “Baiyangdian shige qunluo”.
“Baiyangdian shige qunluo” 白洋淀诗歌群落 (“Baiyangdian Poets’ Community”).
Baron, Albert Heyem Nachmen (1839–1916).
Baskin, Wade (1924–1974).
Bass, Alan.
Baudelaire, Charles-Pierre / Bodelai’er 波德莱尔 (1821–1867).
Becket, Samuel Barclay / Beikete 贝克特 (1906–1986).
Bei Dao 北岛 [Zhao Zhenkai 赵振开] (*1949).
Bei Wang 北望 [He Jiming 何继明]
“Beifen shiren” 悲愤诗人 (“Poets of Fury and Grief“).
Beikete 贝克特, see Becket.
Bergson, Henri-Louis / Baigesen 柏格森 (1859–1941).
Bertens, Johannes Willem / Bodunsi 伯顿斯 (*1945).
Bi Hua 璧华 [Ji Fuhua 纪馥华] (*1934).
“Bianzhe an” 编者按 (“Editor’s Note”).
biaoxian ziwo 表现自我 (“Expression of the Self”).
“Big Character Posters”, see dazi bao 大字报.
Binbin 彬彬.
“Bingfang yishi” 病房意识 (“Ward Consciousness“).
Binkelai 宾克莱, see Binkley.
Binkley, Luther John / Binkelai 宾克莱 (1925–2014).
Bodelai’er 波德莱尔, see Baudelaire.
Bodunsi 伯顿斯, see Bertens.
Boccaccio, Giovanni / Bojiaqiu 薄伽丘 (1313–1375).
Bo’ensi 伯恩斯, see Burns.
Bojiaqiu 薄伽丘, see Boccaccio.
Bolatu 柏拉图, see Plato.
“Boorish Poetry”, see “Manghan shi”.
“Boorishism”, see “Manghan zhuyi”.
Bostock, Anna (1923–2018).
Brodsky, Iosif Aleksandrovich Бродский, Иосиф Александрович / Buluociji 布罗茨基 (1940–1996).
Brooks, Cleanth (1906–1994).
“Buffalo Poetry”, see “Yeniu shi“.
Buluociji 布罗茨基, see Brodsky.
Burns, Robert / Bo’ensi 伯恩斯 (1759–1796).

Cai Lihua 蔡利华 (*1962).
Cai Qijiao 蔡其矫 (1918–2007).
Camus, Albert / Jiamiu 加缪 (1913–1960).
Cao Changqing 曹长青 (*1953).
Cao Hanjun 曹汉俊 (*1957).
Cao Suling 曹苏玲 (1930–2014).
Cao Weidong 曹卫东.
Cao Yifan 曹一凡 (*1927).
Cassirer, Ernst / Kaxi’er 卡西尔 (1874–1945).
Cazamian, Louis François (1877–1965).
Cha Haisheng 查海生 (1964–1989), see Hai Zi.
Chadeweike 查德维克, see Chadwick.
Chadwick, Charles / Chadeweike 查德维克 (*1932).
Chai Jinru 柴金如 (*1923).
“Changri zhuyi” 日常主义 (“Everydayism“).
“Chanshi zhuyi” 阐释主义 (“Interpretivism“).
“Chaodi pai” 超低派 (“Ultra-Lowism“).
“Chaoganjue shi” 超感觉诗 (“Super-Sense School“).
“Chaoqian yishi” 超前意识 (“Futuristic Consciousness“).
“Chaoyue pai” 超越派 (“School of Transcendence“).
Che Cheng’an 车成安 (*1935).
Che Qianzi 车前子 (*1963).
Chen Buwen 陈布文 (1920–1985).
Chen Chao 陈超 (1958–2014), see Chen Mo.
Chen Dongdong 陈东东 (*1961).
Chen Hui 陈慧 (*1933).
Chen Jiaying 陈嘉映 (*1952).
Chen Ka 陈卡.
Chen Kaige 陈凯歌 (*1952).
Chen Maiping 陈迈平 (*1952).
Chen Mo 陈默 [Chen Chao 陈超] (1958–2014).
Chen Xiaofan 陈小蘩.
Chen Xiaolin 陈晓林 (*1949).
Chen Xiaoman 陈小曼 (*1931).
Chen Yi 陈逸.
Chen Yong 陈涌 (1919–2015).
Chen Yongguo 陈永国 (*1955).
Chen Zhaoquan 陈昭全.
Chen Zhongyi 陈仲义 (*1948).
Cheng Daixi 程代熙 (1927–1999).
Cheng Weidong 程蔚东 (*1953).
“Chengshi shi” 城市诗 (“Urban Poetry“).
Chien Cheng-chen / Jian Zhengzhen 简政珍 (*1950).
“Chizixin” 赤子心 (“Pure Heart”).
“Chizixin shishe” 赤子心诗社 (“Pure Heart Poetry Society”).
Chu Tunan 楚图南 [Gao Han 高寒] (1899–1994).
Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Xisailuo 西塞罗 (Ancient Rome, 106–43 BCE).
“Classical plus Ballad”, see gudian jia minge.
“Cluster-Rock Breakthroughism”, see “Qunyan tupo zhuyi”.
“Coffee Night”, see “Kafeiye”.
“College Student Poetry School”, see “Daxuesheng shipai”.
“College Students’ Poetry School”, “Modern Poetry”, see “Xiandai shige“.
“Color Poetry”, see “Secai shi”.
“Colorful Flowers”, see “Baisehua”.
“Colorful Flowers Poetry Society”, see “Baisehua shishe”.
“Commission of Writing System Reform”, see “Wengaihui”.
“Coquetry School”, see “Sajiao pai”.
“Cubist Soldier”, see “Lifang zhuyi zhanshi”.
Cui Jian 崔健 (*1961).
Cui Xianglu 崔相录.
“Cult of Youth”, see qingnian zhuyi.
“Cultural Poetry”, see “Wenhua shi”
“Cultural Revolution”, see “Wenge”.
“Culture-root-seeking Poetry”, see “Wenhua xungen shi”.
Cunningham, Allan / Kanning’an 坎宁安 (1784–1842).

Da Ban 大坂.
“Da langchao xiandai shixue hui” 大浪潮现代诗学会 (“Great Tides Society of Modern Poetry“).
Dai Wangshu 戴望舒 (1905–1950).
Dai Yongxu 戴咏絮 (*1943), daughter of Dai Wangshu.
Dallmayr, Fred Reinhard / Duo’ermai 多尔迈 (*1928).
Danding 但丁, see Dante.
“Dangdai” 当代 (“Today”).
“Dangdai shitan” 当代诗坛 (“Today School of Poetry”).
Dante Alighieri / Danding 但丁 (1265–1321).
“Daxuesheng shipai” 大学生诗派 (“College Student Poetry School”).
dazi bao 大字报 (“Big Character Posters”).
Delida 德里达, see Derrida.
Derelasi 德热拉斯, see Djilas.
Derrida, Jacques / Delida 德里达 (1930–2004).
Descartes, René / Dika’er 笛卡尔 (1596–1650).
Dickstein, Morris / Dikesitan 迪克斯坦 (*1940).
“Di’erci langchao” 第二次浪潮 (“Second Wave”).
“Di’erci langchao shige” 第二次浪潮诗歌 (“Second Wave of Poetry”).
“Disanci langchao” 第三次浪潮 (“Third Wave”).
“Disandai shige” 第三代诗歌 (“Third Generation Poetry”).
“Disandairen” 第三代人 (“Third Generation”).
“Disandairen shihui” 第三代人诗会 (“Third Generation Poets Society”).
Dika’er 笛卡尔, see Descartes.
Dikesitan 迪克斯坦, see Dickstein.
Ding Dang 丁当 (*1962).
Ding Fang 丁方.
Ding Li 丁力 (1920–1993).
“Dipingxian shiyan xiaozu” 地平线实验小组 (“Horizon Experimental Group“).
“Disandai” 第三代 (“Third Generation”).
“Disandai shige” 第三代诗歌 (“Third Generation Poetry”).
“Disandai shige yundong” 第三代诗歌运动 (“Third Generation Poetry Move­ment”).
“Divination Poetry”, see “Guashi”.
Djilas, Milovan / Derelasi 德热拉斯 (1911–1995).
Dong Shabei 董沙贝.
“Dongfang ren” 东方人 (“Orientals“).
“Dongfang zhengti siwei kongjian” 东方整体思维空间 (“Oriental Holistic Thinking Space“).
Dongshan Kuiyi 东山魁夷, see Higashiyama.
Du Fu 杜甫 (Tang Dynasty, 712–770).
Du Liyan 杜丽燕 (*1954).
Du Yunxie 杜运燮 (1918–2002).
Duan Dezhi 段德智 (*1945).
Duo Duo 多多 [Li Shizheng 栗世征 / Bai Ye 白夜] (*1951).
Duo’ermai 多尔迈, see Dallmayr.
Dylan, Bob / Dilun 迪伦 (*1941).

E Fuming 鄂复明 (*1950).
Eagleton, Terry / Yige’ertun 伊格尔顿 (*1943).
Eastman Max (1893–1969).
“Editor’s Note”, see “Bianzhe an”.
Ehrenburg, Ilya Grigoryevich Эренбург, Илья Григорьевич / Ailunbao 爱伦堡 (1891–1967).
“Eight-O’clock Poetry School”, see “Badianzhong shipai“.
Eisenstadt, Shmuel Noah / Aisensitate 艾森斯塔特 (1923–2010).
Eliot, T. S. / Eliot, Thomas Stearns / Ailüete 艾略特 (1888–1965).
“Emotional Poetry”, see “Qingxu shi“.
“End of the Century”, see “Shiji mo“.
“Enlightenment Association”, see “Qimengshe” 启蒙社.
Er Mao 二毛 [Mou Zhenli 牟真理] (*1960).
“Erliushe” 二流社 (“Second-Rate Society”).
“Everydayism”, see “Changri zhuyi“.
“Expression of the Self”, see biaoxian ziwo.
“Extremism”, see “Jiduan zhuyi”.

Fabre, Jean-Henri Casimir / Fabu’er 法布尔 (1823–1915).
Fabu’er 法布尔, see Fabre.
Fang Han 方含 [Sun Kang 孙康] (*1951).
Fang Ping 方平 (1921–2008).
Fang Xiaoguang 方晓光.
fanmian jiaocai 反面教材 (“negative examples” ).
Faulkner, Peter / Fukena 福克纳.
Faulkner, William Cuthbert / Fukena 福克纳 (1897–1962).
Fei Jia 费嘉.
Fei Ke 菲可.
Fei’erbaha 费尔巴哈, see Feuerbach.
“Feifei xingdong” 非非行动 (“No-No Action”).
“Feifei zhuyi” 非非主义) (“No-Noism”).
Feng Chuan 冯川 (*1952).
Feng Jun 冯骏 (*1965), see Jing Bute.
Feng Nanjiang 冯南江 (*1931).
Feng Xincheng 封新成 (*1963).
Feng Zhi 冯至 (1905–1993).
Feuerbach, Ludwig / Fei’erbaha 费尔巴哈 (1803–1874).
“Fission”, see “Liebian“.
“Five Categories of Honored People”, see hongwu lei.
“Five Gentlemen from Sichuan Province”, see “Sichuan wujun“.
Fletcher, John Gould (1886–1950).
Flint, Frank Stuart (1885–1960).
Fokema 佛克马, see Fokkema.
Fokkema, Douwe Wessel / Fokema 佛克马 (1931–2011).
Ford Madox Ford / Fute 福特 [Hueffer, Ford Hermann] (1873–1939).
fouding lunzhe 否定论者 (“negativists”).
“Free Molecules”, see “Youli fenzi“.
“Free Soul”, see “Ziyou hun“.
Freud, Sigmund / Fuluoyide 弗洛伊德 (1856–1939).
“Friday Poets Society”, see “Xingqiwu shiqun“.
Fu Jingchuan 傅景川 (*1952).
“Fuli Society” (Fulihui 付立会).
Fukena 福克纳, see Faulkner.
Fuluoyide 弗洛伊德, see Freud.
Furst, Lilian R. / Fusite 弗斯特 (1931–2009).
Fusite 弗斯特, see Furst.
Fute 福特, see Ford.
“Futuristic Consciousness”, see “Chaoqian yishi”.
“Futurists”, see “Weilai pai”.

Gan Huili 甘恢理 (?–1993).
Gan Lulin 甘露林.
Gan Tiesheng 甘铁生 (*1946).
Gan Yang 甘阳 (*1952).
“Gang of Four” (“Sirenbang” 四人帮).
Gao Han 高寒, see Chu Tunan.
Gao Bingzhong 高丙中 (*1962).
Gao Falin 高伐林 (*1950).
Gao Mingkai 高名凯 (1911–1965).
Gao Yubao 高玉宝 (1927–2019).
Garaudy, Roger / Jiaoluodi 加罗蒂 (1913–2012).
Ge Xiaoli 戈小丽 (*1952).
Geliwusi 格利烏斯, see Gellius.
Gellius, Aulus / Geliwusi 格利烏斯 (Ancient Rome, 125–180).
Gen Zi 根子 [Yue Chong 岳重] (*1951).
Geng Jianhua 耿建华 (*1948).
Geyikeqi 戈伊科奇, see Goicoechea.
Ghiselin, Brewster (1903–2002).
Gilbert, Stuart (1883–1969).
Ginsberg, Allen Jinsibao 金斯堡 (1926–1997).
Goicoechea, David L. / Geyikeqi 戈伊科奇.
“Golden Shield”, see “Jindun”.
Gong Jianming 龚见明 (*1955).
Gong Liu 公刘 (1927–2003).
Gong Peiyu 龚佩瑜 (*1952), see Shu Ting.
Graves, Robert (1895–1985).
“Great Tides Society of Modern Poetry”, see “Da langchao xiandai shixue hui”.
“Grey Books”, see huipishu 灰皮书.
Gu Cheng 顾城 | 古城 (1956–1993).
Gu Gong 顾工 (*1928).
Gu Jiong 顾炯.
Guan Moye 管谟业, see Mo Yan.
“Guashi” 卦诗 (“Divination Poetry“).
gudian jia minge 古典加民歌 (“Classical plus Ballad”).
Gui Gui 桂桂.
“Guilai pai” 归来派 (“Return School”).
Guo Hong’an 郭宏安 (*1943).
Guo Lijia 郭力家 (*1958).
Guo Lusheng 郭路生 (*1948), see Shi Zhi 食指.
Guo Moruo 郭沫若 (1892–1978).
Guo Shiying 郭世英 (1942–1968).

Habeimasi 哈贝马斯, see Habermas.
Habermas, Jürgen / Habeimasi 哈贝马斯 (*1929)
Hai Mo 海默 [Zhang Zefan 张泽藩] (1923–1968).
Hai Ke 海客.
Hai Zi 海子 [Cha Haisheng 查海生] (1964–1989).
Haidege 海德格, see Heidegger.
“Hai­shang shiqun” 海上诗群 (“Poetry at the Sea”).
“Haishang shiren” 海上诗人 (“Poets at the Sea”).
Han Dong 韩东 (*1961).
Hao 豪, see Hauer.
haohanshi 好汉诗 (“Poetry of Tough Guys”).
Harari, Manya (1905–1969).
Hauer, Erwin / Hao 豪 (1926–2017).
Hawkes, Terence / Huokesi 霍克斯 (1932–2014).
He Jiming 何继明, see Bei Wang.
He Jingjie 何京颉, daughter of He Qifang.
He Lin 贺麟 (1902–1992).
Heige’er 黑格尔, see Hegel.
He Qifang 何其芳 (1912–1977).
He Xiaozhu 何小竹 (1963).
He Xin 何新 (*1949).
He’erdelin 荷尔德林, see Hölderlin.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich / Heige’er 黑格尔 (1770–1831).
Helakelite 赫拉克利特, see Heraclitus.
Heluxiaofu 赫魯曉夫, see Khrushchev.
Heidegger, Martin / Haidege 海德格 (1889–1976).
Henderson, Alice Corbin (1881–1949).
Heraclitus of Ephesus / Helakelite 赫拉克利特 (Ancient Greek, c. 535–c. 475 BCE).
Hertz-Ohmes, Peter D. (*1933).
Higashiyama Kaii / Dongshan Kuiyi 东山魁夷 (1908–1999).
“High Sail”, see “Yunfan”.
“High Sail Poetry Society”, see “Yunfan shishe”.
Hölderlin, Friedrich / He’erdelin 荷尔德林 (1770–1843).
Hofstadter, Albert (1910–1989).
“Holism”, see “Zhengti zhuyi“.
Hong Ying 虹影 (*1962).
Hong Zicheng 洪子诚 (*1939).
hongse 红色 (“Red”).
hongse jingdian 红色经典 (“Red Classics”).
hongse xiezuo 红色写作 (“red-writing”).
“Hongweibing” 红卫兵 (“Red Guards”).
Hongweibing shige 红卫兵诗歌 (“Poems of the Red Guards”).
Hongweibing yundong 红卫兵运动 (“Red Guards Movement”).
hongwu lei 红五类 (“Five Categories of Honored People”).
“Horizon Experimental Group”, see “Dipingxian shiyan xiaozu“.
Hotho, Heinrich Gustav (1802–1873).
“Hou feifei” 后非非 (“Post-No-No”).
“Hou keguan” 后客观 (“Post-Objective“).
“Hou menglong shi” 后朦胧诗 (“Post-Misty Poetry”).
“Hou xiandai shige” 后现代诗歌 (“Post-Modern Poetry”).
“Hou xinshi chao” 后新诗潮 (“Post-New Poetry Wave”).
“Houqi menglong shi” 后期朦胧诗 (“Later Misty Poetry”).
Hu Dong 胡冬 (*1962)
Hu Hong 胡泓 (*1965).
Hu Yu 胡玉.
Huang Rui 黄锐 (*1952).
Huang Xiang 黄翔 (*1941).
Huang Yusheng 黄裕生 (*1965).
Huang Yushi 黄雨石 (1919–2008).
“Huanghun zhuyi” 黄昏主义 (“Twilightism“).
huangpishu 黄皮书 (“Yellow Books”).
Hueffer, Ford Hermann (1873–1939), see Ford.
huipishu 灰皮书 (“Grey Books”).
Huiteman 惠特曼, see Whitman.
Hulme, Thomas Ernest (1883–1917).
Huokesi 霍克斯, see Hawkes.
Husai’er 胡塞尔, see Husserl.
Husserl, Edmund / Husai’er 胡塞尔 (1859–1938).
“Huxi shi” 呼吸诗 (“Poetry of Breath“).

“Ineffable Space”, see “Moming qi­miao“.
“Internal Books”, see jinshu.
“Interpretivism”, see “Chanshi zhuyi”.
Ionesco, Eugène / Youneisiku 尤内斯库 (1909–1994).
Iwasa Masanori / Yanzuo Changzhang 岩佐昌暲 (*1942).

Jameson, Fredric / Jiemuxun 杰姆逊 (*1934).
Jefferson, Ann Margaret / Jiefusen 杰弗森 (*1949).
Jiamiu 加缪, see Camus.
Jian Zhengzhen 简政珍, see Chien Cheng-chen.
Jiang Dingyue 蒋定粤.
Jiang He 江河 (*1949).
Jiang Qing 江青 (1914–1991), Mao Zedong’s last wife, member of the “Gang of Four”.
Jiang Shiwei 姜世伟 (*1950), see Mang Ke.
Jiaoluodi 加罗蒂, see Garaudy.
“Jiduan zhuyi” 极端主义 (“Extremism”).
Jiefusen 杰弗森, see Jefferson.
“Jieri de Zhongguo dajie” 节日的中国大街 (“Streets in China during Festivals”).
Jimu Langge 吉木狼格 (*1963).
Jin Die 金蝶.
Jindao Youxin 今道友信, see Tomonobu.
“Jindun” 金盾 (“Golden Shield”).
Jing Bute 京不特 [Feng Jun 冯骏] (*1965).
Jinsibao 金斯堡, see Ginsberg.
jingshen lingxiu 精神领袖 (“spiritual leader”).
jinshu 禁书. (“Internal Books”).
“Jiuhang shi” 九行诗 (“Nine-line Poetry“).
“Jiuye pai” 九叶派 (“Nine Leaves School”).
Jones, Peter Austin / Qiongsi 琼斯 (*1929).
jueqi 崛起 (“rise”).
“Jueqi de shiqun” 崛起的诗群 (“Rising Poetic Groups”).
jueqi lunzhe 崛起论者 (“risers”).
Jung, C. G. / Jung, Carl Gustav / Rongle 荣格 (1875–1961).

“Kafeiye” 咖啡夜 (“Coffee Night”).
Kanning’an 坎宁安, see Cunningham.
Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804).
Kapp, Yvonne Hélène (1903–1999).
Karl, Frederick Robert. (1927–2004).
Kaxi’er 卡西尔, see Cassirer.
Kerouac, Jack / Keruyake 克茹亚克 (1922–1969).
Keruyake 克茹亚克, see Kerouac.
Ke Yan 柯岩 (1929–2011).
“Keguan shi” 客观诗 (“Objective Poetry”).
Khrushchev, Nikita / Хрущёв, Никита Сергеевич / Heluxiaofu 赫魯曉夫 (1894–1971, Russian Premier from 1958 to 1964).
Knox, Thomas Malcolm (1900–1980).
Kochetov, Vsevolod Anissimovich / Кочетов, Всеволод Анисимович (1912–1973).
Kon, Igor Semenovich / Кон, Игорь Семенович (1928–2011).
Kong Lingtao 孔令桃.

Lamading 拉马丁, see Lamartine.
Lamartine, Alphonse de / Lamading 拉马丁 (1790–1869).
Lan Ma 蓝马 [Wang Shigang 王世刚] (*1956).
Langer, Susanne K. (1895–1985).
Lao Mu 老木 (*1963).
Lao Zi 老子 (trad. 6th cent. BCE).
“Later Misty Poetry”, see “Houqi menglong shi”.
Lawrence, Frederick G.
Lei Ji 雷吉.
Lenin / Ленин / Lie­ning 列宁 [Ulyanov, Vladimir Ilyich / Ульянов, Влади­мир Ильич] (1870–1924).
Li Bo 李勃.
Li Bo* 李博, see Ribot.
Li Zhefeng 李浙烽.
Li Guonan 李国南 (*1942).
Li Hengjiu 李恒久.
Li Jie 李劼 (*1955).
Li Jin 李今 (*1956).
Li Jinfa 李金髮 [Li Shuliang 李淑良] (1900–1976).
Li Shuliang 李淑良 (1900–1976), see Li Jinfa.
Li Juan 李娟 (*1979).
Li Nan 李南.
Li Shizheng 栗世征 (*1951), see Duo Duo.
Li Wei 李苇.
Li Xiaobing 李小兵.
Li Yeping 李掖平 (*1957).
Li Xueming 李雪明.
Li Zehou 李泽厚 (*1930).
Li Yawei 李亚伟 (*1963).
Li Ying 李瑛 (1926–2019).
Li Youcheng 李幼蒸 (*1936).
Li Zhengguang 黎正光 (*1953).
Li Zhengtang 李正堂 (*1960).
Liang Xiaobin 梁小斌 (*1954).
Liang Xiaoming 梁晓明 (*1963).
Liang Yue 梁乐.
Liang Zongdai 梁宗岱 (1903–1983).
Liao Yiwu 廖亦武 (*1958).
“Liebian” 裂变 (“Fission“).
Liening 列宁, see Lenin.
Li’erke 里尔克, see Rilke.
“Lifang zhuyi zhanshi” 立方主义战士 (“Cubist Soldier“).
“Life Style”, see “Shenghuo fangshi“.
Like 利科, see Ricœur.
Lin Bo 林波.
Lin Gang 林岗 (*1952).
Lin Mang 林莽 [Zhang Jianzhong 张建中] (*1949).
Lin Yutang 林语堂 (1895–1976).
Ling Yu 凌宇 (*1945).
Liu Buliu 流不流.
Liu Changying 刘长缨.
Liu Denghan 刘登翰 (*1937).
Liu Fuchun 刘福春 (*1956).
Liu Huiqin 刘慧琴.
Liu Manliu 刘漫流 (*1962).
Liu Mingjiu 柳鸣九 (*1934).
Liu Nianchun 刘念春 (*1948).
Liu Qiuling 刘秋玲.
Liu Shaoqi 刘少奇 (1898–1969).
Liu Taiheng 刘太亨 (*1963).
Liu Tao 刘涛 (*1961).
Liu Xiangyu 刘象愚 (*1942).
Liu Xie 刘勰 (Southern Dynasties, 465–520).
Liu Xinwu 刘心武 (*1942).
Liu Yu 刘禹.
Liu Zaifu 刘再复 (*1941).
“Liuli zhuyizhe” 流离主义者 (“School of Displaced Doctrine“).
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807–1882).
Lorca, Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García / Luo’erjia 洛尔伽 (1898–1936).
Lu Feikui 陆费逵 (1886–1941).
Lu Shuangqin 鲁双芹 (*1953).
Lu Yansheng 鲁燕生 (*1952).
Lu Huanxing 陆焕兴.
Lu Yimin 陆亿敏 (*1962).
Lu Xun 鲁迅 [Zhou Shuren 周树人] (1881–1936).
Lü De’an 吕德安 (*1960).
Lü Guipin 吕贵品 (*1956).
Luik, John C. / Luke 卢克.
Luke 卢克, see Luik.
Luobo-Geliye 罗伯-格里耶, see Robbe-Grillet.
Luodan 罗丹, see Rodin.
Luo’erjia 洛尔伽, see Lorca.
“Luojia Moutain”, see “Luojiashan”.
“Luojia Moutain Poetry Society”, see “Luojiashan shishe”.
“Luojiashan” 珞珈山 (“Luojia Moutain”).
“Luojiashan shishe” 珞珈山诗社 (“Luojia Moutain Poetry Society”).
Luo Yihe 骆一禾 (1961–1989).
Lusu 卢素, see Russell.
Lusuo 卢梭, see Rousseau.

Ma Desheng 马德升 (*1952).
Ma Jianzhong 马建中.
Ma Song 马松 *1963).
Ma Yuan 马原 (*1953).
Ma Yuande 马元德.
Ma Xinguo 马新国 (*1940).
MacAndrew, Andrew R.
Madigan, Tim / Madigen 马迪根 (*1962).
Madigen 马迪根, see Madigan.
Ma’erkusai 马尔库塞, see Marcuse.
“Male Soliloquy”, see “Nanxing dubai“.
Mallarmé, Stéfane (1842–1898).
mama de shi 妈妈的诗 (“Those Damned Poems”).
Mang Ke 芒克 [Jiang Shiwei 姜世伟] (*1950).
“Manghan shi” 莽汉诗 (“Boorish Poetry”).
“Manghan zhuyi” 莽汉主义 (“Boorishism”).
Mao Zedong 毛泽东 (1893–1976).
“March towards the Inner World”, see xiang ren de neixin shijie jinjun.
Marcuse, Herbert / Ma’erkusai 马尔库塞 (1898–1979).
Marshall, Herbert.
Marx, Karl / Makesi 馬克思 (1818–1883).
Mayakefusiji 马雅可夫斯基, see Mayakovsky.
Mayakovsky, Vladimir Vladimirovich / Маякoвский, Владимир Владимирович / Mayakefusiji 马雅可夫斯基 [short: Mashi 马氏] (1893–1930).
McDougal, Bonnie S. (*1941).
Meng An 孟安 (1922–1992).
Meng Lang 孟浪 (1961–2018).
“Menglong shi” 朦胧诗 (“Misty Poetry”).
“Menglong shi hou” 朦胧诗后 (“After-Misty Poetry”).
“Menglong shishe” 朦胧诗社 (“Misty Poetry Society”).
“Menglong shiren” 朦胧诗人 (The third part included “Misty Poets“).
Michelet, Karl Ludwig (1801–1893).
“Misty Poetry”, see “Menglong shi”.
“Misty Poetry Society”, see “Menglong shishe”.
“Mizong shi” 迷宗诗 (“Poetry of Confusing Whereabouts“).
Mo Mo 默默 (*1964).
Mo Yan 莫言 [Guan Moye 管谟业] (*1955).
“Moming qi­miao” 莫名其妙 (“Ineffable Space“).
Moréas, Jean (1856–1910).
Mou Dunbai 牟敦白 (*1947).
Mou Zhenli 牟真理 (*1960), see Er Mao.

Nai Gu 乃顾.
Nan Jue 男爵.
“Nanfang pai” 南方派 (“Southern School“).
“Nanxing dubai” 男性独白 (“Male Soliloquy“).
“Neo-Traditionalism”, see “Xin chuantong zhuyi”.
“New Continent”, see “Xin dalu“.
“New Generation”, see “Xinsheng dai”.
“New Sense School”, see “Xinganjue pai”.
“New Spoken Language”, see “Xin kouyu“.
Nicai 尼采, see Nietzsche.
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm / Nicai 尼采 (1844–1900).
“Nine Leaves School”, see “Jiuye pai”.
“Nine-line Poetry”, see “Jiuhang shi“.
“negative examples”, see fanmian jiaocai.
“negativists”, see fouding lunzhe.
Niu Han 牛汉 (1923–2013).
“No-No Action”, see “Feifei xingdong”.
“No-Noism”, see “Feifei zhuyi”.

“Objective Poetry”, see “Keguan shi”.
O’Brien, Justin (1905–1968).
“Oriental Holistic Thinking Space”, see “Dongfang zhengti siwei kongjian“.
“Orientals”, see “Dongfang ren“.
“Others”, see “Tamen”.
“Others Poetry Group”, see “Tamen shiqun”.
Ouyang Jianghe 欧阳江河 (*1956).
“Oversea Youth Poets”, see “Xianshen zai haiwai de qingnian shiren“.

Pan Guangdan 潘光旦 (1899–1967).
Pan Qingping 潘青萍.
Pang Shan 胖山.
Pao Ligen 泡里根.
Parker, Ralph.
Payne, John / Pei’en 培恩 (1842–1916).
Peiduofei 裴多菲, see Petőfi.
Pei’en 培恩, see Payne.
Peigen 培根, see Bacon.
Peng Gang 彭刚 (*1952).
People’s Republic of China (PRC), see Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo.
Perrine, Laurence / Polin 坡林 (1915–1995).
Petőfi, Sándor / Peiduofei 裴多菲 (1823–1849).
“Pili shi” 霹雳诗 (“Thunderbolt Poetry“).
Plato / Bolatu 柏拉图 (Ancient Greek, 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC).
Poe, Edgar Allan (1809–1849).
“Poems of the Red Guards”, see hongweibing shige.
“Poetry at the Sea”, see “Hai­shang shiqun”
“Poetry Festival for Survivors”, see “Xingcunzhe shige yishu jie”.
“Poetry of Breath”, see “Huxi shi“.
“Poetry of Confusing Whereabouts”, see “Mizong shi“.
“Poetry of Experience”, see “Tiyan shi“.
“Poetry of Snow Sea”, see “Xuehai shi“.
“Poetry of Snow Sea School”, see “Xuehai shipai“.
“Poets of Fury and Grief”, see “Beifen shiren“.
“Poets at the Sea”, see “Haishang shiren”.
“Poetry of Tough Guys”, see haohanshi.
Polin 坡林, see Perrine.
“Post-Misty Poetry”, see “Hou menglong shi”.
“Post-Modern Poetry”, see “Hou xiandai shige”.
“Post-New Poetry Wave”, see “Hou xinshi chao”.
“Post-No-No”, see “Hou feifei”.
“Post-Objective”, see “Hou keguan”.
Pound, Ezra (1885–1972).
Pro­ta­go­ras / Puluotagela 普罗塔哥拉 (Ancient Greek, ?–411 BCE).
Pu Min 普珉 (*1962).
Puluotagela 普罗塔哥拉, see Protagoras.
“Pure Heart”, see “Chizixin”.
“Pure Heart Poetry Society”, see “Chizixin shishe”.
Pusey, Edward Bouverie / Puxi 普西 (1800–1882).
Pushkin, Alexander Sergeyevich Пушкин. Александр Сергеевич / Puxijin 普希金 (1799–1837).
Puxi 普西, see Pusey.
Puxijin 普希金, see Pushkin.

Qi Qun 齐群 (*1948).
Qian Cheng 钱诚 (*1922).
Qian Liqun 钱理群 (*1939).
Qian Zhongshu 钱钟书 (1910–1998).
Qian Zulai 钱祖来.
“Qimengshe” 启蒙社 (“Enlightenment Association”).
Qin Shunxin 秦顺新 (*1930).
qingnian zhuyi 青年主义 (“Cult of Youth”).
“Qingxu liu” 情绪流 (“Stream of Sentimentality“).
“Qingxu shi” 情绪诗 (“Emotional Poetry“).
Qiongsi 琼斯, see Jones.
Qiu Xiaolong 裘小龙 (*1953).
“Qiudao shi” 求道诗 (“Taoist Poetry“).
Qu Leilei 曲磊磊 (*1951).
Qu Wei 渠炜, see Song Qu and Song Wei.
Qu Xiaosong 瞿小松 (*1952).
“Qunyan tupo zhuyi” 群岩突破主义 (“Cluster-Rock Breakthroughism“).

“Real Human Literature”, see “Zhenren wenxue”.
“real spiritual leader”, see zhenzhengde jingshenshang de daoshi.
“Red”, see hongse.
“Red Classics”, see hongse jingdian.
“Red Guards”, see “Hongweibing”.
“Red Guards Movement”, see Hongweibing yundong.
“red-writing”, see hongse xiezuo.
“Return School”, see Guilai pai”.
Ribot, Théodule Armand / Li Bo* 李博 (1839–1916).
Ricœur, Paul / Like 利科 (1913–2005).
“right opportunist”, see youqing jihui zhuyi fenzi.
Rilke, Rai­ner Maria / Li’erke 里尔克 (1875–1926).
“rise”, see jueqi.
“risers”, see jueqi lunzhe.
“Rising Poetic Groups”, see “Jueqi de shiqun”.
“Roaring of Mountains and Seas”, see shanhu haixiao.
Robbe-Grillet, Alain / Luobo-Geliye 罗伯-格里耶. (1922–2008).
Robey, David.
Rodin, François Auguste René / Luodan 罗丹 (1840–1917).
Rong Xuelan 戎雪兰.
Rongle 荣格, see Jung.
Ruan Fa 软发.
Ruo Zi 若子.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques / Lusuo 卢梭 (1712–1778).
Russell, Bertrand / Lusu 卢素 (1862–1970).

Sa Sa 撒撒.
Sailinge 塞林格, see Salinger.
“Sajiao pai” 撒娇派 (“Coquetry School”).
Salinger, Jerome David / Sailinge 塞林格 (1919–2010).
Sangtage 桑塔格, see Sontag.
“Sanjiaomao” 三脚猫 (“Three-Legged Cat“).
Sartre, Jean-Paul / Sate 萨特 (1905–1980).
Sate 萨特, see Sartre.
Saussure, Ferdinand de / Suoxu’er 索绪尔 (1857–1913).
“Secai shi” 色彩诗 (“Color Poetry“).
Schaff, Adam / Shafu 沙夫 (1913–2006).
Scholes, Robert E. / Sigelesi 司格勒斯 (1929–2016).
“School of Displaced Doctrine”, see “Liuli zhuyizhe“.
“School of No School”, see “Wupai zhi pai“.
“School of Transcendence”, see “Chaoyue pai“.
Schopenhauer, Arthur / Shubenhua 叔本华 (1788–1860).
“Second-Rate Society”, see “Erliushe”.
“Second Wave”, see “Di’erci langchao”.
“Second Wave [School] of Poetry”, see “Di’erci langchao shige”.
Shafu 沙夫, see Schaff.
shanhu haixiao 山呼海啸 (“Roaring of Mountains and Seas”).
Shang Zhongmin 尚仲敏 (*1964).
Shang Zhiying 尚志英.
Shakespeare, William / Shashibiya 莎士比亚 (1564–1616).
Shang Shui 尚水.
Shao Chunguang 邵春光 (1955–2010).
Shashibiya 莎士比亚, see Shakespeare.
She Biping 佘碧平 (*1965).
Shen Congwen 沈从文 (1902–1988).
“Shenghuo fangshi” 生活方式 (“Life Style“).
Sherover-Marcuse, Erica (1938–1988).
Shi Baojia 史保嘉 (*1951).
Shi Guanghua 石光华 (*1958).
Shi Kangcheng 史康成.
Shi Xianrong 施咸荣 (1927–1993).
Shi Zhi 食指 [Guo Lusheng 郭路生] (*1948).
Shidiwensi 史蒂文斯, see Stevens.
“Shiji mo” 世纪末 (“End of the Century“).
Shu Ting 舒婷 [Gong Peiyu 龚佩瑜] (*1952).
Shubenhua 叔本华, see Schopenhauer.
Sibingele 斯賓格勒, see Spengler.
“Sichuan wujun” 四川五君 (“Five Gentlemen from Sichuan Province“).
Si Fu 斯夫.
“Sifang hezi” 四方盒子 (“Square Box“).
Sigelesi 司格勒斯, see Scholes.
“Sirenbang” 四人帮 (“Gang of Four”), i. e. Wang Hongwen 王洪文, Zhang Chunqiao 张春桥, Jiang Qing 江青, Yao Wenyuan 姚文元.
Siweidengbao 斯威登堡, see Swedenborg.
Socrates / Sugeladi 苏格拉底 (Ancient Greek, c. 470–399).
“Solar Brigade”, see “Taiyang zongdui”.
Sologub, Fyodor / Suoluogubo 索洛古勃 (1863–1927).
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich Солженицын, Александр Исаевич / Su’er­renniqin 索尔仁尼琴 (1918–2008).
Song Haiquan 宋海泉 (*1947).
Song Qu 宋渠 (*1963).
Song Wei 宋炜 (*1964).
Sontag, Susan / Sangtage 桑塔格 (1933–2004).
“Southern School”, see “Nanfang pai“.
Spanos, William Vaios (1924–2017).
“Special Troop”, see “Tezhongbing”.
Spengler, Oswald / Sibingele 斯賓格勒 (1880–1936).
“spiritual leader”, see jingshen lingxiu.
“Square Box”, see “Sifang hezi”.
“Star Art Exhibition”, see “Xingxing huazhan”.
Stawell, Maud Margaret Key (*1865).
Stevens, Wallace / Shidiwensi 史蒂文斯 (1879–1955).
“Stream of Sentimentality”, see “Qingxu liu“.
“Streets in China during Festivals”, see “Jieri de Zhongguo dajie”.
Su Hang 苏杭 (*1927).
Su Ke 苏克.
Su Tong 苏童 [A Tong 阿童] (*1963).
“Subjective Imagery”, see “Zhuguan yixiang“.
Su’er­renniqin 索尔仁尼琴, see Solzhenitsyn.
Sugeladi 苏格拉底, see Socrates.
“Summer Palace Poets Society”, see “Yuanmingyuan shiqun“.
Sun Jilin 孙基林 (*1958).
Sun Junshi 孙俊世.
Sun Kang 孙康 (*1951), see Fang Han.
Sun Lifan 孙立帆.
Sun Shaozhen 孙绍振 (*1936).
Suoluogubo 索洛古勃, see Sologrub.
Suoxu’er 索绪尔 [Saussure, Ferdinand de] (1857–1913).
“Super-Sense School”, see “Chaoganjue shi”.
Swedenborg, Emanuel / Siweidengbao 斯威登堡 (1688–1772).

“Tai Ji Poetry”, see “Taiji shi“.
“Taiji shi” 太极诗 (“Tai Ji Poetry“).
“Taiyang zongdui” 太阳纵队 (“Solar Brigade” ).
“Tamen” 他们 (“Others”).
“Tamen shiqun” 他们诗群 (“Others Poetry Group”).
Tan Dali 谭大立 (*1958).
Tan Xiaochun 谭小春.
Tang Daogeng 汤道耕 (1904–1992), see Aiwu.
Tang Qi 唐祈 (1920–1990).
Tang Xiaobing 唐小兵 (*1964).
Tang Xiaodu 唐晓渡 (*1954).
Tang Yaping 唐亚平 (*1962).
Tao Dongfeng 陶东风 (*1959).
Tao Luosong 陶雒诵.
Tao Qian 陶潜 [Tao Yuanming 陶渊明] (Southern Dynasties, 365–427).
“Taoist Poetry”, see “Qiudao shi“.
Teng Shouyao 滕守尧 (*1945).
“Tezhongbing” 特种兵 (“Special Troop“), see also Guo Lijia.
“Third Generation”, see “Disandai”, “Disandairen”.
“Third Generation Poetry”, see “Disandai shige”.
“Third Generation Poetry Movement”, see “Disandai shige yundong”.
“Third Generation Poets Society”, see “Disandairen shihui”.
“Third Wave”, see “Disanci langchao”.
“Those Damned Poems”, see mama de shi.
“Three-Legged Cat”, see “Sanjiaomao”.
“Thunderbolt Poetry”, see “Pili shi“.
Tian Xiaoqing 田晓青 (*1953).
“Tiyan shi” 体验诗 (“Poetry of Experience“).
“Today”, see “Dangdai”.
“Today School of Poetry”, see “Dangdai shitan”.
Tomonobu, Imamichi / Jindao Youxin 今道友信 (1922–2012).
Tong Jinghan 佟景韩 (1933–2010).
Trotsky, Leon Тротский, Леон / Tuoluociji 托洛茨基 (1879–1940).
Tu Jiliang 涂纪亮 (1926–2012).
Tu Shao 土烧.
Tuoluociji 托洛茨基, see Trotsky.
“Twilightism”, see “Huanghun zhuyi“.

“Ultra-Lowism”, see “Chaodi pai“.
“Urban Poetry”, see “Chengshi shi“.

“Vanguard Experimental Poetry”. see “Xianfeng shiyan shige”.

Wan Junren 万俊人 (*1958).
Wan Xia 万夏 (*1962).
Wang Chuanping 王川平 (*1950).
Wang Dawen 王大文.
Wang Dongbai 王东白.
Wang Enzhong 王恩衷.
Wang Gan 王干 (*1960).
Wang Haoli 王好立.
Wang Hongwen 王洪文 (1935–1992), member of the “Gang of Four”.
Wang Hui 汪晖 (*1959).
Wang Jiaxiang 王家骧 (1917–1982).
Wang Jiaxin 王家新 (*1957).
Wang Jie 王捷.
Wang Keping 王克平 (*1949).
Wang Keyi 王科一 (1925–1968).
Wang Lin 王林.
Wang Ning 王宁 (*1955).
Wang Shengping 王生平 (*1945).
Wang Shigang 王世刚 (*1956), see Lan Ma.
Wang Shixie 王士燮 (*1932, tr.).
Wang Weike 王維克 (1917–1952).
Wang Xiaoni 王小妮 (*1955).
Wang Yin 王寅 (*1962).
Wang Yuechuan 王岳川 (*1955).
Wang Zhengyun 王正云.
“Ward Consciousness”, see “Bingfang yishi“.
Warren, Austin / Wolun 沃伦 (1899–1986).
Watts, William (1590–1649).
“Weilai pai” 未来派 (“Futurists”).
Weileke 韦勒克, see Wellek.
“Weiming Lake”, see “Weiminghu”.
“Weiming Lake Poetry Society”, see “Weiminghu shishe”.
“Weiminghu” 未名湖 (“Weiming Lake”).
“Weiminghu shishe” 未名湖诗社 (“Weiming Lake Poetry Society”.
Weitegensitan 维特根斯坦, see Wittgenstein.
Wellek, René / Weileke 韦勒克 (1903–1995).
Wen Huiru 李文俊 (*1930).
“Wengaihui” 文改会 (“Commission of Writing System Reform”).
“Wenge” 文革 (“Cultural Revolution”), short for “Wenhua da geming” or “Wu­chan jieji wenhua da geming”, term für the period from 1966–1976 in China.
“Wenhua da geming” 文化大革命 (Great Cultural Revolution).
“Wenhua shi” 文化诗 (“Cultural Poetry).
“Wenhua xungen shi” 文化寻根诗 (“Culture-root-seeking Poetry”).
Whitman, Walt / Huiteman 惠特曼 (1819–1892).
Wittgenstein, Ludwig / Weitegensitan 维特根斯坦 (1889–1951).
Wolun 沃伦, see Warren.
Woolf, Virginia / Wu’erfu 伍尔夫 (1882–1941).
Wu Bin 吴滨 (*1958).
Wu Dongpei 吴冬培 (*1963).
Wu Erlu 吴尔鹿.
Wu Hong 巫鸿 (*1945).
Wu Kaijin 吴开晋 (*1934).
Wu Lixian 伍立宪 (*1942), see Ya Mo.
Wu Sijing 吴思敬 (*1942).
Wu Wenguang 吴文光 (*1946),.
Wu Xiaoming 伍晓明 (*1963).
“Wuchan jieji wenhua da geming” 无产阶级文化大革命 (Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution),.
Wu’erfu 伍尔夫, see Woolf.
“Wupai zhi pai” 无派之派 (“School of No School“).

“X Shishe” X诗社 (“X Society of Poets”).
“X Society of Poets”, see “X Shishe”.
Xi Mi 奚密 (*1955).
Xian Meng 闲梦.
“Xiandai shige” 现代诗歌 (“College Students’ Poetry School”, “Modern Poetry“).
“Xianfeng shiyan shige” 先锋实验诗歌 (“Vanguard Experimental Poetry”).
xiang ren de neixin shijie jinjun 向人的内心世界进军 (“March towards the Inner World”).
“Xianshen zai haiwai de qingnian shiren” 现身在海外的青年诗人 (“Oversea Youth Poets“).
Xiao An 小安 (*1964).
Xiao Chi肖驰.
Xiao Hai 小海 (*1965).
Xiao Jun 小君 [Ye Zi 叶梓] (*1962).
Xiao Xiao 萧萧.
Xiao Ying 小英.
Xiao Yu 肖聿 (*1953).
Xiao Yu* 小玉.
Xicheng Culture Center, see Xichengqu wenhuaguan 西城区文化馆, Beijing.
“Xichuan Style”, see “Xichuanti”.
“Xichuanti” 西川体 (“Xichuan Style“).
Xie Mian 谢冕 (*1932).
“Xin chuantong zhuyi” 新传统主义 (“Neo-Traditionalism“).
“Xin dalu” 新大陆 (“New Continent“).
“Xin kouyu” 新口语 (“New Spoken Language“).
“Xin ziran zhuyi” 新自然主义 (“New Naturalism“).
“Xinganjue pai” 新感觉派 (“New Sense School“).
“Xingcunzhe shige yishu jie” 幸存者诗歌艺术节 (“Poetry Festival for Survivors”).
“Xingqiwu shiqun” 星期五诗群 (“Friday Poets Society“).
“Xingxing huazhan” 星星画展 (“Star Art Exhibition”).
“Xinsheng dai” 新生代 (“New Generation”).
“Xinshi chao hou” 新诗潮后 (“After-New Poetry Wave”).
Xiu Rong 锈容.
Xu Haoyuan 徐浩渊 (*1949).
Xu Jinbo 徐金波.
Xu Jingya 徐敬亚 (*1949).
Xu Maoyong 徐懋庸 (1911–1977).
Xu Rongjie 徐荣街 (*1941).
Xu Xiao 徐晓.
Xu Yichun 徐奕春.
Xu Youyu 徐友渔 (*1947).
“Xuehai shi” 雪海诗 (“Poetry of Snow Sea“).
“Xuehai shipai” 雪海诗派 (“Poetry of Snow Sea School“).

Ya Mo 哑默 (*1942) [Wu Lixian 伍立宪]
Yalishanda 亞歷山大, see Alexander.
Yalishiduode 亚里士多德, see Aristotle.
Yan Li 严力 (*1954).
Yan Xiaodong 燕晓东.
Yan Yuejun 阎月君.
Yang Bojun 杨伯峻 (1909–1992).
Yang Guoqiang 杨国强 (*1948).
Yang Jian 杨健 (*1952).
Yang Ke 杨克 (*1957).
Yang Kuanghan 杨匡汉 (*1940).
Yang Li 杨黎 (*1962).
Yang Lian 杨炼 (*1955).
Yang Liuhong 杨榴红 (*1965).
Yang Leyun 杨乐云 (1919–2009).
Yang Xiaomin 杨孝敏.
Yang Xiaoyan 杨晓燕.
Yang Yuanhong 杨远宏 (*1945).
Yang Zhengguang 杨争光 (*1957).
Yanzuo Changzhang 岩佐昌暲, see Iwasa.
Yao Jiahua 姚家华.
Yao Wenyuan 姚文元 (1931–2005), member of the “Gang of Four”.
Ye Yanbin 叶延滨 (*1948).
Ye Zi 叶梓 (*1962), see Xiao Jun.
Yeats, William Butler / Yezhi 叶芝 (1865–1939).
Yefudushenke 叶夫杜申科, see Yevtushenko.
“Yellow Books”, see huangpishu.
“Yeniu shi” 野牛诗 (“Buffalo Poetry“).
Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Евтушенко, Евгений Александрович / Yefudushenke 叶夫杜申科 (1933–2017).
Yezhi 叶芝, see Yeats.
Yi Dan 易丹 (*1960).
Yi Dian 伊甸 (*1953).
Yi Qun 依群 (*1947).
Yige’ertun 伊格尔顿, see Eagleton.
Yin Baoshu 殷宝书 (1907–1997).
Yin Guangzhong 尹光中.
“Youli fenzi” 游离分子 (“Free Molecules“).
Youneisiku 尤内斯库, see Ionesco.
youqing jihui zhuyi fenzi 右倾机会主义分子 (“right opportunist”).
Yu Cijiang 于慈江 (*1963).
Yu Daxiang 喻大翔 (*1953).
Yu Gang 余刚 (*1968).
Yu Hong 余虹 (1957–2007).
Yu Jian 于坚 (*1954).
Yu Luoke 遇罗克 (1941–1970).
Yu Xiao 于晓.
Yu Xiaowei 于小韦 (*1961).
Yu Youze 于友泽 (*1949), see Jiang He.
Yu Yu 郁郁 (*1961).
Yu Zhixin 于植信.
Yuan Kejia 袁可嘉 (1921–2008).
“Yuanmingyuan shiqun” 圆明园诗群 (“Summer Palace Poets Society“).
Yue Chong 岳重 (*1951), see Gen Zi.
“Yunfan” 云帆 (“High Sail”).
“Yunfan shishe” 云帆诗社 (“High Sail Poetry Society”).

Zabel, Morton Dauwen.
Zang Kejia 臧克家 (1905–2004).
Zhai Yongming 翟永明 (*1956).
Zhang Chunqiao 张春桥 (1917–2005), member of the “Gang of Four”.
Zhang Ci 张慈,.
Zhang Dawei 张大伟.
Zhang Dongsun 张东荪 (1886–1973).
Zhang Heci 张鹤慈 (*1943).
Zhang Jianzhong 张建中 (*1949), see Lin Mang.
Zhang Jiuxing 张久兴.
Zhang Langlang 张郎郎 (*1943).
Zhang Liaoliao 张寥寥 (*1952).
Zhang Longxi 张隆溪 (*1947).
Zhang Ming 章明 (*1961).
Zhang Ning 张宁.
Zhang Pengzhi 张鹏志,.
Zhang Runfeng 张润峰.
Zhang Shenfu 张申府 (1893–1986).
Zhang Wei 张炜 (*1962).
Zhang Xinhua 张新华.
Zhang Xuemeng 张学梦 (*1940).
Zhang Yaxin 章亚昕 (*1949).
Zhang Yue 张月.
Zhang Zefan 张泽藩 (1923–1968), see Hai Mo.
Zhang Zhenzhou 张振洲.
Zhang Zao 张枣 (1962–2010).
Zhao Jingxing 赵京兴 (*1950).
Zhao Leshen 赵乐甡 (1924–2007).
Zhao Luorui 赵萝蕤 (1912–1998).
Zhao Ye 赵野 (*1964).
Zhao Yifan 赵一凡 (1935–1988).
Zhao Yiheng 赵毅衡 (*1943).
Zhao Zhe 赵哲 (*1948).
Zhao Zhenkai 赵振开 (*1949), see Bei Dao.
Zheng Bonong 郑伯农 (*1937).
Zheng Guangzhao 郑光召 (*1947), see Zheng Yi.
Zheng Xunzuo 郑训佐 (*1958).
Zheng Yonghui 郑永慧 (1918–2012).
Zheng Yi 郑义 [Zheng Guangzhao 郑光召] (*1947).
“Zhengti zhuyi” 整体主义 (“Holism“).
“Zhenren wenxue” 真人文学 (“Real Human Literature“).
zhenzhengde jingshenshang de daoshi 真正的精神上的导师 (“real spiritual leader”).
Zhong Acheng 钟阿城 (*1949).
Zhong Ming 钟鸣 (*1953).
Zhong Weiguang 仲维光.
Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo 中华人民共和国 (People’s Republic of China, PRC).
Zhou Chui 周陲 (*1949).
Zhou Lunyou 周伦佑 (*1952).
Zhou Meiying 周眉英.
Zhou Shiliang 周士良 (1914–1980).
Zhou Shuren 周树人 (1881–1936), see Lu Xun.
Zhou Zuoren 周作人 (1885–1967).
Zhu Guangqian朱光潜 (1897–1986).
Zhu Jinpeng 朱金鹏.
Zhu Li 朱荔.
Zhu Wen 朱文 (*1967).
Zhu Xiang 朱湘 (1904–1933).
Zhu Xiaoyang 朱小羊.
Zhu Ying 朱鹰 (*1963).
Zhu Zhiyong 朱智勇 (*1966).
Zhu Ziqing 朱自清 (1898–1948).
Zhuang Rouyu 庄柔玉.
Zhuang Zi 庄子 (Warring States, ca. 369 – ca. 286 BCE).
“Zhuguan yixiang” 主观意象).( “Subjective Imagery“).
“Ziyou hun” 自由魂 (“Free Soul“).
Zou Yu 邹羽 (*1965).